Comparison of Top Four Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
Our apple relies on an absolute faculty of adjustment and pattern. Everywhere, there is a adjustment that governs all activity processes and systems. In the business world, there is an absolute assurance on patters and structures as well. One of these patterns is alleged Activity Architectonics and refers to the all-embracing accustomed adjustment that dictates how the elements of a accustomed alignment or bureau collaborate and appear together. In a sense, the Activity Architectonics is the adapt or adept cipher that determines the how the operations of a business is strategically accumbent to best accomplish the goals and backpack it in the administration that it has set for itself.
According to Schekkerman an Activity Architectonics acts as the “collaborative force” that synthesizes business planning, governance, operations, advice systems, and the enabling technology that serves as the belvedere for convergence. (2004, 12) Altered agencies of the United States government use Activity Architectonics to absolute their organization, and the abstraction is acceptable added accustomed in the business and accumulated apple because of its accurate adeptness to accumulate an alignment and accomplish businesses added able and profitable.
In the accumulated and business setting, it may be said that the appellation Activity Architectonics refers to the accessory amalgamation of technology with bureau operations. Every avant-garde activity relies on some anatomy of advice technology and as these technologies advance and become added adult and powerful, the charge for Activity Architectonics becomes added acute in adjustment to accredit all types of organizations to booty advantage of these technologies in adjustment to accomplish success and growth.
Given the abeyant amount of Activity Architectonics to a accustomed aggregation or organization, this cardboard intends to booty a afterpiece attending at the top four types of Activity Architectonics frameworks, accord their arresting appearance and from there, be able to appear up with suggestions as to which types of organizations are best able to account from a specific Activity Architectonics framework or model.
What is Activity Architecture?
As ahead mentioned, an Activity Architectonics (EA) establishes the roadmap that will absolute the bureau to best accomplish its goals according to its amount ethics and vision. An Activity Architectonics achieves this through the streamlining and access of amount business processes through the use of the best able and adapted use of the assorted modalities of advice technology. Schekkerman appropriately justifies the charge for Activity Architecture, “a anxiously authentic framework is all-important to be able to abduction a eyes of the absolute alignment in all its ambit and complexity. (2004, 12-13) To be able to accomplish this, an Activity Architectonics is buttressed by frameworks which acquiesce the disparate elements of an activity to become synergized. (Schekkerman 2004, 13) These frameworks advice advance the bendability of the advice represented all throughout the organization, from the aboriginal departments to the advanced levels of the enterprise. (GAO 2006)
According to Lankhorst, an Activity Architectonics is important because it allows an alignment to accept a “holistic view” of the activity of which it is a allotment of. (2005, 3) Activity Architectonics angle changes in ablaze of the bigger picture. For example, a new activity or adjustment may be benign for a specific department, but if it has adverse furnishings on the activity as a whole, again it will not be accustomed because according to Activity Architectonics what is acceptable for a allotment should be acceptable for the accomplished as well.
Enterprise Architectonics has been declared as “both a activity and a discipline.” (McGovern 2003, 1) Activity Architectonics is a activity because it adheres to specific accomplish in adjustment to aftermath the adapted effect. It is a conduct because it is a “body of ability that instructs bodies on how to architectonics the best able adjustment for their accurate situation. (McGovern 2003, 1) The Government Accountability Office in its 2006 abode said that “A categorical activity is an capital apparatus for leveraging advice technology (IT) in the transformation of business and mission operations. It goes on to say that any attack to adapt or advance accepted IT environments is added acceptable to abort afterwards any Activity Architectonics to adviser the endeavor. (GAO 2006)
Operating Models (OM)
In so far as Activity Architectonics is concerned, the appellation operating models absorb how the concrete basement is advised and deployed all throughout the enterprise. (Pal and Pantaleo 2005, 78)
The aboriginal archetypal is the amalgamated archetypal or what is additionally accepted as the collaborative environment. The “Federated model” and collaborative environments are absolute abundant abased on a adjustment of sharing. This archetypal relies absolutely on an adjustment of aggregate protocols and instruments that is activated or deployed in all aspects of the enterprise. (Pal and Pantaleo 2005, 79) The amalgamated archetypal does not depend on vendor-exclusive protocols or technologies that depend on the manufacturer’s proprietary design. In this archetypal prefers open-source standards or those that are absolute of any cast of architecture. Such alternative for the open-source types of technology facilitates the use beyond a ample spectrum of systems and platforms, alike as it maintains bendability and reliability. (McGovern 2003, 12) The beneath demands of a amalgamated archetypal on an enterprise’s absolute architectonics makes it an ideal archetypal to use, abnormally in the alpha stages of the deployment of an Activity Architectonics in an organization. Read about Corporate Babyminding at Wipro
Strong Centralized Operating Model
A amalgamated archetypal may either be beneath the able centralized operating archetypal or the anemic centralized model. As the name implies, a able centralized operating archetypal has advantages in agreement of top-level operations, or those processes that absorb the absolute enterprise. Centralization allows for a added holistic akin of planning and affords for a greater faculty of ascendancy beyond the absolute organization. (Pal and Pantaleo 2005, 81) The appellation centralized is additionally alike with highly-standardized and allows the accomplishing of the industry’s best practices in all architectural levels. Because a able centralized operating archetypal is awful automated and tight, it is additionally absolute cost-effective and is absolute acceptable for baby and medium-sized enterprises.
One apparent weakness of the able centralized archetypal is that it is not so accumulate on actuality acknowledging to the altered needs of the detached units or departments. The attributes or architectonics of the able centralized archetypal makes it added ideal for top-level operations because it cannot be customized to abode specific elements or units.
Weak Centralized Operating Model
The anemic centralized operating archetypal addresses the aspects area the able centralized archetypal fails to abode or alike accede of. The anemic centralized operating archetypal offers a college akin of ascendancy amid the lower levels or tiers of the architectonics and affords the assemblage a greater faculty of freedom or ability as far as their own units are concerned. By appliance this model, specific departments are bigger able to administer their own sub-level goals and priorities.
However, as with all alternative systems, there are assertive limitations and disadvantages to the anemic centralized operating model. Amid these disadvantages are college costs of deployment; because a anemic centralized operating archetypal may be assemblage or activity specific, its use may crave the accession of alternative infrastructures and technologies to abode alternative areas of the enterprise. Second, the use of a anemic centralized operating archetypal may aftermath redundancies or repetitions of technologies. This is anon accompanying to the accessible charge to install alternative programs. Another accessible accident is the conception of modular or aimless competencies, area a assemblage is awful absolute and competent but is clumsy to accommodate itself in the beyond organization. The aftermost accessible accident of appliance a anemic centralized operating archetypal is that it may aftereffect in an asperous and inconsistent commitment of services, accomplished in some, characterless in others. The aftermost accident is accessory to the conception of modular contingencies. (SPICT, 2003)
“Indeed, the focus on alone assemblage needs can be at the amount of institutional needs.” (SPICT, 2003) The amalgamated operating access seeks to acquisition a accommodation amid the charge for assemblage freedom and the accent of synergy. The amalgamated archetypal accomplishes this by acceptance alone compartments to accept a assertive akin of ability in so far as their bounded priorities are concerned, but authoritative abiding that these priorities are accumbent with the goals of the activity as a whole. Specific responsibilities are acutely authentic but alone in so far as how these bounded responsibilities accord to the amount goals of the organization. (SPICT, 2003) The amalgamated archetypal seeks to accomplish freedom for departments and the automated and adapted operations beyond the absolute enterprise. A acknowledged amalgamated archetypal is characterized by a able and absolute “central leadership” while acquainted the contributions of the alone units. (SPICT, 2003)
Value of an EA Framework (for all OM)
An Activity Architectonics framework addresses the apropos of all operating models, in the aforementioned way that the amalgamated archetypal attempts to accommodate the best appearance of the able centralized operating archetypal and the anemic centralized operating model. Regardless of any blazon of operating model, utilizing enterprise-architecture methodologies has been accurate aftereffect absolute changes in any enterprise’s basal line. (Sessions 2007) An Activity Architectonics framework ensures than an alignment derives best amount from IT systems while befitting their costs low. IT systems accept become added big-ticket and adult while the absolute and applied ethics that can be acquired from these aggrandized IT systems accept been diminishing. As such, the use of Activity Architectonics methodologies has become absolute admired in ablaze of this situation, and a solid compassionate of the assorted frameworks is bare to apperceive how to best apparatus them.
Over the years, abounding frameworks accept appear and gone. Currently, best organizations accomplish use of one of the afterward four types of Activity Architectonics framework:
1. Zachman Framework
The Zachman Framework provides a adamant and highly-logical archetypal for defining an enterprise. This framework is a simple way of classifying the elements of an alignment as based on the interrogatives or the 5 W’s and 1 H (Who, What, When, Where, Why and How). This archetypal is alleged afterwards John Zachman, who in 1987 alien this absolute accustomed framework. In actuality the name Activity Architectonics came from Zachman himself. The use of a simple allocation adjustment is based on the abstraction of alignment based on anecdotic representations. (Lankhorst 2005, 24) The framework depicts “the circle amid the roles in the architectonics process”, i.e. owner, designer, builder, and the elements of the architectonics itself or the 5 W’s and 1 H. (Lankhorst 2005, 24) The anatomy of the Zachman Framework is able and all-embracing because it is able of capturing the aspect of the absolute enterprise. Currently, the framework is accepted for allegory the elements of any Activity Architecture. It is additionally accessible to accept and implement, can be acclimated with a array of protocols, and “can be acclimated absolute of absolute accoutrement and methodologies.” (Lankhorst 2005, 24)Some experts say Zachman Framework is absolutely a adjustment of anatomy because of the specific way that it classifies the elements of an enterprise.
The Zachman Framework is fabricated by creating grids or beef whose access corresponds to the labels in both the rows and columns. A accustomed article accordingly is classified in two ways, the role and its attribute. The cast is again abounding out carefully. The “what” corresponds to the abstracts involved; the “how” refers to the activity of the data; the “where” refers to the data’s area in the network; the “what” corresponds to the bodies who will handle the data; the “when” refers to the schedule; and the “why” refers to the purpose or motivation. The capital abstraction abaft the Zachman Framework is the use of an affinity amid an activity designers and an architect. A architectonics artist prepares altered responsibilities or artifacts for anniversary process. Every amateur will account from actuality accustomed the complete account or goal, but is alone accustomed specific domains or responsibilities. Anniversary amateur functions according to the labels given, and is evaluated based on the achievement as authentic in the filigree or matrix.
The capital check of the Zachman Framework is that the absolute cardinal of beef and the approximate relationships that abide amid beef can actualize abashing and can affectation as a abeyant antecedent of problem. Sometimes, the charge to accept a acceptable organizer can get in the way of the absolute process.
2. The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF)
Like the Zachman Framework which may be bigger authentic as an architectural taxonomy, best experts accede the Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) as a activity added than a framework. According to Lankhorst, TOGAF has four capital apparatus and they are the following:
High-level Framework – considers the all-embracing architectonics as composed of carefully commutual elements of business, data, application, and technology. Advised as the “core” of the TOGAF framework. (Lankhorst 2005, 25) It is additionally alleged the ADM or the Architectonics Development Method which contains the compound for architectonics the architecture.
TOGAF Activity Continuum - captures the interrelationships amid altered the levels of the activity and “illustrates how architectures are developed beyond a continuum”, (Lankhorst 2005, 25) alignment from amount or foundation, to common, to industry, to alignment architectures. This is comprised of two elements:
A. TOGAF Foundation Architecture
B. Architectonics Blocks Advice Base
TOGAF Resource Abject – refers to the accoutrement and methods accessible to accomplish the alternative components.
TOGAF as a activity complements the Zachman Framework. Zachman guides in the allocation and alignment of artifacts and TOGAF provides the absolute activity for creating the architecture. (Sessions 2007) TOGAF is absolute adjustable in the faculty that it does not ascertain the end aftereffect or the product. It is aloof in how the absolute architectonics turns out. According to Sessions, “TOGAF alone describes how to accomplish an activity architecture, not necessarily how to accomplish a acceptable activity architecture.” (2007) The consistent architectonics is abased on how the absolute activity is manifested. The TOGAF may be added acceptable for organizations that await on able adjustment and processes.
3. The Federal Activity Architecture
The Federal Activity Architectonics (FEA) may be advised as the best all-encompassing appliance of Activity Architecture. It is acclimated by the federal government of the United States in adjustment to accumulate and accumulate all its agencies and departments beneath a distinct and connected Activity Architecture. In the words of Schekkerman, the FEA was created “to assay opportunities to abridge processes and arrange assignment beyond the agencies and aural the curve of business of the Federal Government.” (2004, 105) The FEA will serve as the accumulation architectonics to accommodate all absolute architectonics of the assorted agencies of the US government. The capital purposes of the FEA are: to adapt federal information; advance advice sharing, advice federal agencies advance their architectures; advice federal agencies adjudge on IT systems investments; and accommodate better, faster, added acknowledging account to the citizenry. (Schekkerman 2004, 106) It includes all federal organizations and bureaus, including sub-agencies and alternative organizations that federally adjourned and whose activities absorb federal agencies. (Schekkerman 2004, 106)
While the FEA is adequately new and still in its adolescence stage, it is a artefact of the abounding efforts to bind the aggrandized authority of the government. (Sessions 2007) The FEA may be authentic as Activity Architectonics in convenance or a complete alignment in action. The FEA may be adopted by organizations that are as circuitous and aggrandized as governments.
4. The Gartner Methodology
The Gartner Alignment puts added accent on ability and adventures rather than allocation or processes. In the Gartner framework, the activating processes of any accustomed activity accord the architectonics its vitality. The composure of your anatomy or the ability of your activity is abortive if it cannot acquisition any applicable accomplishing or application. Gartner believes that an Activity Architectonics is basically the conception of synergy amid business owners, advice specialists, and the technology implementers. The ambition is accompany these bodies calm and affiliate them in a accepted vision, and that is the apparatus that will drive your architectonics appear its goals.
The success of the activity or achievement of a purpose is abstinent in agreement of absolute amount such as profits and beneath aerial costs, not by bridge out an account in the Zachman filigree or TOGAF activity matrix. (Sessions 2007) In employing the framework, Gartner believes that activity architectonics practitioners charge alpha with the vision, the administration it wants to go and not area it currently is. (Sessions 2007) By alive the goal, this can be compared to the accepted accompaniment of diplomacy and from there, be able to appear up with a account of the things that charge be done. The eyes or ambition is again fabricated accepted to everybody concerned, authoritative abiding that it is understood. From there, every footfall or activity is concentrated appear accomplishing the target.
EA Framework Belief and Assessment
There are several means to appraise an Activity Architecture, but the best important belief are the results. How has the Activity Architectonics translated in agreement of absolute and assessable improvements in the organization? In a 2005 certificate issued by United States Office of Budget and Administration (OMB) advantaged “Federal Activity Architectonics Program EA Assessment Framework 2.0” the FEA is to be evaluated in agreement of: amount savings, amount avoidance, bigger casework to citizens, bigger mission performance, bigger administration and use of advice including greater dissemination, bargain accumulating accountability on the public, and greater advice administration and collaboration, and technology alliance and standardization. All of these belief may be acclimated by businesses and corporation, authoritative abiding to accommodate profits in the factors for evaluation.
There is no law that requires one specific framework for a specific enterprise. Every alignment is unique, and the best way to authorize which framework is best to appear up with a account of needs according to accent and assay how anniversary framework addresses those needs. This is a acceptable springboard to alpha you on your search.
Case Study - Industry Experience with an EA Framework
A arch auto aggregation had disaggregated operations advance beyond assorted locations in the globe. These operations accommodate manufacture, assembly, analysis and development, sales and marketing, and after-sales services. Some of these processes were outsourced or managed by third-party contractors. As such, this airish a botheration in agreement of creating a synergy in the IT adjustment accustomed the disparate users, anniversary with their own proprietary requirements. This resulted in decidedly college operational expenses. The aggregation needs to accept an IT aggregation that is able to bound acknowledge to ever-changing business requirements accustomed the disaggregated adjustment of the business.
The abstraction was to lay the foundations for an Activity Architectonics that is able to authorize a added affectionate accord amid business and IT people. The EA practitioner helped the applicant by anecdotic a framework that would actualize the articulation amid the company’s eyes and the operations base. The Zachman EA Framework was recommended, area every appliance was organized and classified. By initiating the change by appliance Activity Architecture, the aggregation was able to move in the appropriate administration for accomplishing the all-important accessory accord amid the aggregation eyes and the IT infrastructure. (WiPro 2007) The aggregation was now able to use its IT assets in such a way that is advised and self-directed.
The affection of any Activity Architectonics is to accouter the capabilities of an organization’s absolute IT basement and be able to use these technologies in means that accomplish the amount eyes of the organization. Activity Architectonics it a activity of designing the best able arrangement or belvedere aloft which IT systems will be acclimated in the best optimized way. The four frameworks analyzed actuality are not necessarily afraid of anniversary other. They anniversary serve a purpose and accept their own altered advantages and disadvantages. The charge to accept alignment and allocation is addressed by the Zachman Framework. If activity is the problem, again the TOGOF is the best archetypal to use. For highly-complex and commutual enterprises, the FEA is a acceptable framework to adopt. If eyes is the amount issue, again the Gartner Framework is the best way to start. As with any endeavor, an affectionate ability of your alignment is appropriate so that you can appraise the assorted frameworks based on how it addresses your organization’s altered needs and circumstances.
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SPICT. (2003) Advantage U of S: Strategic Planning for Advice and Communications Technology at the University of Saskatchewan. Retrieved on November 18, 2007 from http://www.cs.usask.ca/faculty/bunt/AdvantageUS.pdf
United States Office of Budget and Administration (OMB Federal Activity Architectonics Program EA Assessment Framework 2.0. (2005)). Retrieved on November 18, 2007 from http://www.cio.gov/documents/OMB_EA_Assessment_Framework_2.pdf.
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