Compare the Evidence of a Nordic Presence in the Americas
Compare the affirmation of a Nordic attendance in the Americas afore the accession of Columbus with the affirmation of a West African attendance during that period. It has been said by historians that the Nordics and the West Africans were in the Americas afore Columbus accustomed in 1492. Admitting evidence, such as articulate sagas, archetype routes which it was said they took, artifacts, ashen remains, amid others, accept been begin to prove that they could accept been present; there are still debates as to whether or not they absolutely came to the Americas afore Columbus.
Some accept that the affirmation of the attendance of the Nordics is added acceptable than that of the West Africans. The Norse (also accepted as the Vikings) got their name from the accent they spoke, ‘Old Norse’. They were originally from Scandinavian countries. It believed that they came to the new apple for several affidavit such as; the actuality that it had a affluent accumulation of alkali to bottle their goods, they were explorers, the country they lived in, Greenland, anon became over busy and they accomplished a abundant dearth in 975. It is additionally believed that there was a political agitation amid the cans in Northern Europe.
There has been abounding pieces of affirmation to abutment the approach that the Vikings were, in fact, present in the new apple during the pre-columbian era. Some of the settements of the Vikings were found, still standing, such as ‘York’ and ‘Dublin’. There was not abundant accounting annal on the Viking so best of their history was anesthetized bottomward orally through sagas, through which we aboriginal heard of their analysis into Europe and the Americas, there were two sagas which survived; these are the Greenlander’s Saga and The Saga of Erik the Red. The sagas affirmation that the Vikings interacted and traded with the built-in bodies that they begin in the Americas.
The sagas led to the award of some abundant affirmation such as the archaeological charcoal begin in ‘Newfoundland’ and there it was apparent that there was a Viking adjustment in the boondocks alleged ‘L’Anse aux Meadows’, in this boondocks historians apparent that the Vikings did biking added south into the Americas and explored the acreage they batten of in their sagas, Vinland. Aback they ventured added bottomward into Vinland historians apparent butternut copse and butternuts, which were not built-in to the breadth so it is believed that the Vikings brought it there from added south (lands surrounding the Gulf of St.
Lawrence). Alternative artifacts such as architectural structures, woodworking items, baiter rivets and claimed items were begin in the region, which historians anachronous aback to about AD 1000 with the use of accurate method. Another adamantine allotment of affirmation begin in ‘Vinland’ was a Norse bread which was begin off the bank of Maine and was anachronous aback to amid AD1065-1080 which suggests that there was alternation of these bodies and the aboriginal peoples. This gave historians concrete affirmation that coincided with the articulate sagas. All this affirmation pre-dates European accession by as aboriginal as 500 years.
It is additionally believed that the West Africans came to the New Apple centuries afore the accession of Columbus. Ivan Van Sertima is one of abounding who altercate that West Africans fabricated acquaintance with the new Apple afore Columbus. According to Sertima the Africans travelled from the African bank from the arctic to the west and above the Atlantic. According to the acclaimed Egyptian Scholar, Ibn Fadi Al-Umari, in 1342, there were two ample voyages above the Atlantic Ocean, afore Columbus’ voyage, both of these voyages were pioneered by one man, Mansa (king) Abubakari II. In the year 1311, Abubakari abdicated his befuddled to Mansa Musa.
Not a son of his son but in actuality his brother. He (Abubakari) able 1000 of his ships with the finest men, sorcerers, physicians, sailors and navigators. Every address had accumulation address absorbed to it. The cardinal of ships totalled 2000. The alternative 1000 ships were loaded with foodstuffs, drugs, fruits and drinks to aftermost his aggregation for 2yrs. It was believed that Abubakari accustomed on the alternative end of the Atlantic in the year 1312. Proof of the Malian campaign can be acclaimed in the names accustomed to places in Haiti as the Malians renamed places afterwards themselves. Examples of such are Mandinga Port, Mandinga Bay and Sierre de Mali.
It is said that the African mariners that came to the western hemisphere were attractive for barter and ability of what aria above their coasts. They brought with them flora and fauna, cloth, their accurate knowledge, technology and the arts. Modern abstracts accept apparent that the age-old African boats could accept fabricated the adventure above the seas to the new apple as they were able enough. Baiter builders in Central Africa’s Lake chad fabricated a card ability that was sailed from Arctic Africa to Barbados in eastern Caribbean in 1969, there were agnate journeys that showed that alike the baby boats could with accept survived these crossings.
Some of the affirmation that the West African’s were in actuality present in the arena afore Columbus’ accession are; the linguistic continuities in the region, an archetype of this is aback it was recorded that the aboriginal peoples referred to the Africans as ‘guanine’ which was the aboriginal allotment of affirmation that west Africans were in the region, it, however, was not apparent as able abundant by abounding historians to authority up such a theory. There were no accounting affirmation that they were there, it could be affected that they could accept been lost, or destroyed as it was apparent that the Europeans were not consistently advanced of these alternative cultures in their explorations.
History has recorded some incidents area the writings of citizenry and adored metals and gems were destroyed (in the case of the adored metals and gems, they were acclimated or broiled down) by the Europeans aback they came to the acreage of the natives, as they saw some of these as agnostic items. Another allotment of affirmation begin by historians were the archaeological charcoal that were found, the age of these charcoal were anachronous aback according to how abysmal the archaeologist had to dip for it.
The alternating layers of adobe alone congenital up over time, so the archaeologists knew the date of the adobe band again the date of the artifacts to the band which was found. Additional affirmation that accurate the apriorism that both these cultures came in acquaintance came from bright affirmation of the facial appearance of the images and figures, which were done application assorted abstracts such as clay, gold and chestnut that were begin in the charcoal which were dug up.
The images and abstracts begin in the charcoal were acutely aggressive by an African as the phenotypical and cultural characteristics were acutely of an African origin, this could be told by “…their colouration, the adequateness of lip, prognathism, scarification, boom markings, beards, coiled hair, abundantly fleshed noses, and alike in some instances, identifiable coiffures, arch kerchiefs, helmets, admixture earrings…” (Sertima 1976). ” Also, there were huge arch sculptures which were apparent in the Central and South America that additionally had African features.
Skeletal charcoal which belonged is believed to accept belonged to Africans were found. Added affirmation is apparent in the religious rituals of the bodies in Mexico, as their gods and ceremonies are carefully modelled to those of the African society. Also, the use of shells as bill rather than aloof allegorical items and additionally the botanical continuities such as the attendance of breed of African origin, for example; banana, jack bean, yam and others. Alternative affirmation which came anon from the citizenry themselves aback they explained to the Europeans that they “received an admixture alleged guanine’ from the Africans”, the admixture which they batten of consisted of a mix of adored metals. It was additionally acclaimed that some of the artifacts of the citizenry which Columbus collected, such as the cloths acclimated by the citizenry carefully akin the weave, colouration and appearance of cloths acclimated by African communities in Guinea. An explorer, Balboa, additionally recorded that he came above broadcast groups of bodies who looked actual abundant like Africans in regions that he had ‘discovered’.
This shows that the Europeans themselves came above Africans in the region. There is additionally the accurate affirmation (oceanography) which credibility to the actuality that the Africans were actual able of accepting to the new apple afore Columbus, The Atlantic World’s bank was affiliated to the African bank by the ocean currents which confused amid the two areas, which meant that the Africans who were apparent in the Americas would not accept had any problems application these means to accomplish their way to the new world.
In both cases, as apropos the attendance of the Nordics and the west Africans in the western hemisphere afore Columbus, the capital botheration is the actuality that there are not abundant accounting accounts by the bodies themselves, and so it is accessible to alarm the affirmation exceptionable as in the apple today facts are based on what is accounting in the books.
There is, however, added acceptable affirmation for the Nordics as it relates to how they got the western hemisphere as there avenue can be traced easily, admitting it is said that the Africans got to the western hemisphere application Pacific accepted accepted as the Kouro-Siwo and the Equatorial currents of the Atlantic Ocean. In both case, settlements were uncovered, and affirmation of things they larboard abaft such as flora and fauna, claimed items amid alternative things.
It can be said that admitting there was not abundant accounting accounts of their presence, there is acceptable affirmation that they had, indeed, been present in the Americas in the pre-columbian era.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Africaspeaks. com Bornblackmag. org Campbell, John and Heather Cateau. History for the Caribbean in the Atlantic World. Ghanaweb. com Shepherd, Verene Liberties Lost. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, Worker. org
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