Comparative Analysis on Erp Vendors

School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend K507–Enterprise Adeptness Planning – 2008 Fall – ERP Action Allusive assay of ERP vendors: SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft Koenraad Adams, Eric Piazzoni, and In-Saeng Suh [email protected] com, [email protected] com, [email protected] edu Abstract This is a abstraction of the allusive assay on the action assets planning (ERP) vendors, SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft. We assay on functionalities, cost, features, and ambition bazaar for anniversary vendor. Keywords: ERP, SAP, Oracle, Microsoft, SME 1 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend . Accession ERP arrangement is an chip advice arrangement to abutment the business aural altered authoritative genitalia of an enterprise. The arch all-around providers are SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft. ERP bales are advised to be customizable to authentic needs of an alignment and to its bequest systems. The customization of ERP modules for a authentic user is performed with appropriate accoutrement and appliance specific or accepted programming languages. Due to already mentioned accepted ERP characteristics, customization and accomplishing usually crave specialized adeptness and cogent resources. SAP was founded on April 1, 1972, by bristles IBM employees. It developed its aboriginal artefact (financial accounting software) in abutting cooperation with its aboriginal customer. The aggregation grew initially about ERP and caked its bazaar administration by actuality a avant-garde in the move from mainframe to client-server accretion with its R/3 ERP band-aid alien in the 1990s. From there, SAP broadcast into a abundant broader set of applications for alternative functions in the enterprise: chump accord administration (CRM), accumulation alternation administration (SCM), artefact life-cycle administration (PLM), and supplier accord administration (SRM). By bundling and amalgam these applications, SAP became accepted for high-quality, absolute action solutions, which SAP or SAP-trained SI consultants would afresh customize. Oracle was founded in 1977 as Software Development Laboratories. The aboriginal Oracle affairs was accounting in accumulation language, ran on PDP-11 and with 128k of memory. The software was never "officially" appear though. Version 2 which was appear in 1979 was the aboriginal to be released. The aggregation had afflicted its name by afresh to Relational Software Inc. Business grew and by 1982 they had afflicted their name again, this time to Oracle and in 1987 the aggregation went public. Today, Oracle charcoal one of the leaders in the ERP industry. A few of the firsts Oracle brought us are: ? The aboriginal commercially-available SQL-based database (1979) 2 School of Business and Economics ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Indiana University South Bend The aboriginal database to abutment symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) (1983) The aboriginal broadcast database (1986) The aboriginal database artefact activated to accede with the ANSI SQL accepted (1993) The aboriginal 64-bit database (1995) The aboriginal web database (1997) The aboriginal proprietary RDBMS to become accessible on Linux (1998) The aboriginal database to abutment XML (1999) Microsoft Dynamics AX is a band of business administration solutions that provides banking management, business intelligence, animal adeptness management, action management, chump accord administration (CRM), manufacturing, accumulation alternation administration solutions, collaborative workspace, and agreement and development. The Advice Technology angle quadrants Gartner Consulting produces anniversary year as a blazon of criterion to see breadth anniversary provider endless up adjoin their competition. In 2007, Gartner appear the division on the left. While abounding will altercate that Gartner‘s methods are too simplistic and don‘t accord a absolutely authentic appearance of what the accommodation makers face, it is still a acceptable abode to alpha back comparing products. Gartner ranks venders in two areas, Abyss of Eyes and Adeptness to Execute. Appliance assorted qualifiers based on the rankings, the solutions are places in one of four quadrants: ? Leaders account college on both criteria; the adeptness to assassinate and abyss of vision. Typically beyond industry developed businesses with eyes and abeyant for amplification 3 School of Business and Economics ? Indiana University South Bend Challengers account college the adeptness to assassinate and lower on the abyss of vision. Typically larger, acclimatized businesses with basal approaching affairs for that industry ? ? Visionaries account lower on the adeptness to assassinate and college on the abyss of vision. Typically abate companies that are auction their planned abeyant Niche players account lower on both criteria: the adeptness to assassinate and abyss of vision. Typically bazaar fledglings In 2007, both Oracle and SAP were placed appear the basal of the Challengers Quadrant. This would announce they accept the adeptness to execute, admitting maybe not that able-bodied as they are appear the basal of the quadrant, and they don‘t assume to accept a abundant accord of vision. But is that all there is to attending at? In this study, we focus on functionalities and features, the absolute amount of ownership, and ambition bazaar of the ERP vendors: SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft Dynamics. 2. Functionalities and Appearance 2. 1 SAP R/3 SAP R/3 is a client-server based application, utilizing a 3-tiered model, the presentation layer, the appliance layer, and the database layer. SAP R/3 is structured appliance its own proprietary accent alleged ABAP (Advanced Business Appliance Programming). ABAP, or ABAP/4 is a fourth bearing accent (4GL), geared appear the conception of simple, yet able programs. SAP R/3 additionally offers a complete development ambiance breadth developers can either acclimate absolute SAP cipher to acclimate absolute functionality or advance their own functions, whether letters or complete transactional systems aural the SAP framework. ABAP's basic alternation with the database arrangement is via Open SQL statements. These statements acquiesce a developer to query, update, or annul advice from the database. Avant-garde accommodation accommodate GUI development and avant-garde affiliation with alternative systems. With the accession of ABAP Objects, ABAP provides the befalling to advance applications with acquisitive programming. SAP ERP redefines action adeptness planning – carrying role-based admission to acute data, 4 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend applications, and analytic tools. With SAP ERP, we can calmly accord with business challenges in the afterward areas: ? End-user account commitment – Ensure that advisers can readily admission the analytic data, applications, and analytic accoutrement they charge to accomplish all their job functions calmly and finer while additionally acknowledging a shared-services authoritative archetypal for animal resources, finances, and alternative key processes. SAP ERP offers role-based access, self-services, and agent alternation centermost abutment through SAP Manager Self-Service, SAP Agent Self-Service, Duet and agent alternation centermost support. Plus, SAP Adaptable Time and Travel enables advisers in the acreage to abode time and costs offline. SAP ERP Financials – Ensure acquiescence and adequation of business achievement – so the alignment can accretion a added banking acumen beyond the action and bind ascendancy of finances. SAP ERP Financials automates banking and administration accounting and banking accumulation alternation management. The band-aid additionally provides authentic abutment for corporate-governance mandates such as Basel II and Sarbanes-Oxley. ? SAP ERP Animal Basic Administration – Optimize the HR processes with a complete, integrated, and all-around animal basic administration (HCM) solution. SAP ERP provides this HCM band-aid for organizations of all sizes and in all industries. You can aerate the abeyant of your workforce, while acknowledging innovation, growth, and flexibility. The SAP ERP HCM band-aid automates aptitude management, amount HR processes, and workforce deployment – enabling added ability and bigger acquiescence with alteration all-around and bounded regulations. ? SAP ERP Operations – Administer end-to-end accretion and acumen business processes for complete business cycles – from self-service requisitioning to lexible invoicing and acquittal – optimizing the breeze of materials. SAP ERP Operations additionally helps detached and action manufacturers administer the absolute action aeon of artefact development and manufacturing. The band-aid automates the absolute accomplishment action and reduces costs by authoritative and adapting the 5 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend accomplishment action in absolute time – and increases chump achievement by carrying higher-quality products. ? SAP ERP Accumulated Casework – Helps organizations administer their best costintensive accumulated functions by acknowledging and streamlining authoritative processes in the areas of absolute estate; action assets; action portfolios; accumulated travel; environment, health, and assurance compliance; quality; and all-around barter services. SAP ERP Accumulated Casework is a complete and chip band-aid that maximizes accuracy and control, while abbreviation banking and ecology risks and acceptable assurance of employees. ? Performance administration – Abutment the absolute action aeon of achievement management, carrying real-time, abandoned abstracts and metrics to advance business acumen and accommodation making. SAP ERP supports banking analytics, operations analytics, and workforce analytics, as able-bodied as circumscribed banking and approved reporting; planning, budgeting, and forecasting, action administration and scorecards, and accident management. 2. 2 Oracle An Oracle database arrangement is a belvedere with at atomic one appliance active n it to admission and action the data. Abstracts is stored logically in the anatomy of table spaces and physically in the anatomy of abstracts files. The recommended anatomy for an Oracle database is the convention RAC--Real Appliance Clusters. Multiple instances, usually on altered servers, attach to a axial accumulator array. This offers bigger performance, scalability and back-up for the users. There are assorted versions of the Oracle database administration software. In addition, Oracle divides it‘s artefact into assorted editions to clue business and sales. Action Edition – The abounding apartment of performance, scalability, aegis and believability stored on either a amassed or distinct server. Runs on all standards and accessible with a ample cardinal of applications. ? ? Accepted Edition – Provides Action akin functions for mid-sized organizations. Awash through Oracles 400 Value Added Resellers. Accepted Edition One – low end—minimum bristles users—entry akin package. 6 School of Business and Economics ? ? ? Indiana University South Bend Express Edition – primarily advised for acceptance to apprentice how to cipher applications for Oracle. It is small, chargeless and his bound capacity. Oracle Personal Edition – ? Aerial end? functionality but awash to single-use developers. Oracle Database Lite – advised to run on adaptable devises. Admitting this looks like a ample cardinal of options, there are absolutely abandoned three authentic choices and they are based on the admeasurement (number of seats) of the organization. Of the alternative three, 2 are for developers and the alternative aloof provides admission to database advice from a adaptable devise. Oracle does, however, action some alternative ? flavors? to action as well. Oracle has developed badly mostly through acquisitions. Their artefact curve include. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? PeopleSoft Action Siebel JD Edwards Hyperion Agile AutoVue Fusion Not counting the alternative articles (PeopleSoft, JD Edwards etc. ) Oracle Business Suites abandoned accept over 140 altered applications which can be installed on their platform. These include: ? Action Achievement Administration – A apparatus which aides in the controlling accommodation authoritative action by acknowledging a ample ambit of strategic, banking and operational administration processes. Business Action Outsourcing – an appliance which seems to assignment as an extranet and allows organizations clue the non-core business processes which accept been outsourced. ? Chump Accord Management—tracks what is action on in the sales department. Allows alternative departments (finance, production) apperceive what they can expect. It will additionally acquiesce the business groups apperceive how able campaigns accept been. 7 School of Business and Economics ? Indiana University South Bend Chump Self-Service Solutions—allow chump abode orders themselves afterwards the supplier accepting to accept accession access the order. This reduces the accident of adjustment access errors. Assembly or barn groups accept the adjustment appropriate abroad and can act on it abundant quicker so about-face about takes beneath time. ? ? Banking Administration Solutions—provides and advance abstracts for accounts operations, governance, risk, compliance, and achievement management. Animal Basic Administration – ? advance all aspects of the Animal Basic needs, from amount animal adeptness (HR) transactional functionality through account automation and commitment to complete action aptitude administration solutions.? 1 It provides the bare assets and has authentic to abate the costs. ? Accretion – Insures that the accumulation alternation stays on top of productions needs and maintains the best amount able adjustment of accomplishing so. Action Management—maintains almanac of accepted projects statuses and communicates with those defective the advice in adjustment to assure projects are proceeding as they should. ? Busline Suite—insures shipments ability their destination as able-bodied as, ? lowers busline costs, improves chump account and asset utilization, and provides flexible, all-around accomplishment options.? 2 These are aloof a scattering of the applications available. Essentially, whatever the need, Oracle has a way to accommodated it. 2. 3 Microsoft Dynamics Banking Administration Microsoft Dynamics AX accounting and accounts solutions advice you clue and assay business information. You can calmly administer your accepted ledger, payables, receivables, inventory, sales process, purchasing, analytic accounting, banknote flow, coffer reconciliations, anchored assets, and collections. 1 "Human Basic Administration Solutions. " Oracle, The World's Largest Action Software Company. 19 Nov. 2008 . 2 "Transportation Management. " Oracle, The World's Largest Action Software Company. 9 Nov. 2008 . 8 School of Business and Economics Business Intelligence and Advertisement Indiana University South Bend Microsoft Dynamics allows you to administer budgets, actualize and consolidate letters and attending for trends and relationships in any allotment of the business. Animal Adeptness Administration Microsoft Dynamics allows the administration of appellant and agent information: amount and benefits, abilities mapping, application and agent registration, and abilities development. In accession the arrangement helps you ensure your alignment is affair government advertisement requirements accurately and on time. Project Administration Action administration and accounting applications acquiesce action managers, accountants and admiral to advance their action advantage and acclimate to alteration conditions. In accession administer resources, anticipation costs and budgets, clue time, and expenses. Lastly, administer affairs and billing. Chump Accord Administration Chump accord administration solutions accredit administration of chump groups, actualize and barrage business campaigns, clue chump activity, administer sales and afterwards sales. It additionally enables automation of abounding day to day tasks for sales, chump service, acreage service, alarm center, and business professionals. Accomplishment It provides an chip apartment of accomplishment applications that accord you the accoutrement to plan, manage, and assassinate a top of the band accomplishment operation. The accomplishment action consists of artefact configuration, scheduling and boutique floor, and accumulation and accommodation requirements planning. Accumulation Alternation Administration This improves account management, administration of distinct or multi-site warehouses, appeal planning, adjustment processing, and online accord with suppliers. Collaborative Workspace This extends the ability of business applications, advice and action to employees, customers, and ally with role based commitment through a distinct web-based portal. Agreement and Development 9 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend Customization capabilities accredit programmers and arrangement administrators to add new functionality and acclimate absolute functionality bound and with bound coding. 3. The absolute amount of ERP buying Absolute amount of buying (TCO) is a cogent agency in ERP strategies and decisions. Yet while both end-users and ERP vendors tend to allocution about lower TCO and abounding vendors affirmation it as a point of differentiation. Three altered elements of absolute amount associated with ERP implementations are absolutely important: ? ? ? Amount spent on software Amount spent of alien casework Centralized costs Back as the aggregation grows, the cardinal of users goes up, forth with the absolute amount of software and services, one can artlessly apprehend a alternation amid admeasurement of the ERP deployment and costs. As apparent in Table 1, as the cardinal of users goes up, the absolute amount of software and casework additionally rises. Table 1: Boilerplate Software and Casework Costs by Aggregation Admeasurement Aggregation Admeasurement Under $50M $50M - $100M $100M - $250M $250M - $500M $500M - $1B $1B - $5B Over $5B Boilerplate # of Users 38 92 195 344 475 2187 3365 Boilerplate Software $176,597 $482,941 $695,395 $985,714 $1,364,286 $2,360,577 $2,652,500 Boilerplate Account $126,022 $351,374 $581,090 $655,263 $1,110,000 $2,081,000 $2,102,778 Boilerplate 3 years Aliment $81,676 $247,554 $443,066 $346,639 $617,735 $1,479,208 $1,163,531 Boilerplate absolute amount $384,295 $1,081,869 $1,719,551 $1,987,616 $3,092,021 $5,920,785 $5,918,809 Source: Aberdeen Group, July 2007 Table 2 displays software and account costs by vendor, back the arrangement of casework to software costs is apocalyptic of both affluence of use and affluence of implementation. We aloof adopted a few above vendors, Infor, Lawson, QAD, SAP and Oracle. Table 2: Software and Account Costs by Bell-ringer 10 School of Business and Economics ERP bell-ringer Infor Lawson QAD SAP Oracle Boilerplate Software $703,261 $482,500 $633,871 $1,276,667 $1,929,167 Boilerplate Account $494,444 $455,556 $463,158 $1,115,323 $1,694,231 Indiana University South Bend Boilerplate # of ERP modules 11. 0 10. 8 10. 2 11. 9 11. 5 Boilerplate Software + Account per user $9,843 $10,521 $9,741 $11,381 $16,882 Boilerplate absolute costs per user $12,773 $11,826 $12,161 $15,067 $20,983 Source: Aberdeen Group, July 2007 Functionality and TCO abide cogent factors on ERP strategies and decisions. The abyss and across of functionality deployed, forth with the amount of software, services, and on-going aliment amalgamate to accommodate a amount achievement of ERP. Table 3 shows the ERP acceptance and absolute amount per user per allotment Point of functionality acclimated by three vendors, SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft Dynamics. Table 3: ERP Acceptance and Costs per User per Allotment of Functionality Acclimated ERP Bell-ringer SAP Oracle Microsoft Dynamics Boilerplate # of Modules Acclimated 12. 4 11. 3 10. 6 Boilerplate % of Functionality Acclimated 69. 1% 72. 4% 73. 2% Boilerplate # of Users 834 1365 116 Software + Account + 3 Yrs Maint. $702 $513 $607 Source: Aberdeen Group, July 2007 Cost Areas of Microsoft Dynamics AX The antecedent boilerplate authorization amount per user for Microsoft Dynamics AX is $3,000. According to Nucleus Research, Inc the boilerplate antecedent authorization amount for a Microsoft Dynamics AX chump was $571,234 with a low of $50,000 and a aerial of $2. 55 million. The consulting boilerplate amount for Microsoft Dynamics AX deployment was $1,169,745 with a low of $50,000 and a aerial of $6. 8million. The boilerplate amount for consulting was $600,000. Pertaining to those barter that fabricated accouterments investment, the boilerplate accouterments costs were $180,188 while the boilerplate amount was $84,750 (Nucleus Research, 7). Those companies that invested in the centralized cadre for deployment and 11 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend advancing abutment for the ERP band-aid the boilerplate cadre costs were $346,667 and the boilerplate anniversary advancing amount was $192,000. Lastly, training costs on boilerplate were $141,375 with one hundred and ninety-five users, twenty-nine hours of training time at a amount of $25 per hour. Table 1. The Boilerplate 3-Year Amount of an Microsoft Dynamics AX Deployment Boilerplate $571,234 $1,169,745 $180,188 Abstracts Components Boilerplate antecedent authorization amount Boilerplate standalone consulting amount of barter interviewed Boilerplate accouterments amount of barter interviewed Boilerplate cardinal of cadre bare to deploy:4 Boilerplate time of deployment:13 months Assumed absolutely loaded amount of an employee:$80,000 Boilerplate cardinal of users: 195 Boilerplate training time: 29 hours Assumed absolutely loaded alternate amount of an end user: $25 Boilerplate antecedent amount of deployment Boilerplate aliment rate: 16% Boilerplate antecedent authorization price. Average cardinal of FTEs appropriate to abutment Microsoft Dynamics AX: 2. 4 Assumed absolutely loaded amount of a abutment FTE:$80,000 Boilerplate 3-year costs of software, consulting, hardware, personnel, training and maintenance. Software Consulting Accouterments Cadre $346,667 Training Absolute Advancing Costs Software aliment Cadre $141,375 $2,409,207 $274,192 $576,000 Absolute 3-Year Amount $3,259,399 Table 2. The Boilerplate 3-Year Amount of an Microsoft Dynamics AX Deployment Antecedent Costs Boilerplate Abstracts Components Software $168,000 Boilerplate antecedent authorization amount Boilerplate standalone consulting Consulting $600,000 amount of barter interviewed Boilerplate accouterments amount of Accouterments $84,750 barter interviewed Boilerplate cardinal of cadre bare Cadre $220,000 to deploy:3 Boilerplate time of deployment:11 12 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend months Assumed absolutely loaded amount of an employee:$80,000 Boilerplate cardinal of users: 120 Boilerplate training time: 24 hours Assumed absolutely loaded alternate amount of an end user: $25 Boilerplate antecedent amount of deployment Boilerplate anniversary amount of license: 15% Boilerplate antecedent authorization price: $168,000 Boilerplate cardinal of FTEs appropriate to abutment Microsoft Dynamics AX: 1. 25 Assumed absolutely loaded amount of a abutment FTE:$80,000 Boilerplate 3-year costs of software, consulting, hardware, personnel, training and maintenance. Training Absolute Advancing Costs Software aliment 72,000 $1,144,750 $75,600 Cadre $300,000 Absolute 3-Year Amount $1,269,950 3. Ambition bazaar SAP serves 75% of the Fortune All-around 1000, but beneath than 1% of Fortune All-around million. The baby and average action (SME) bazaar is a huge opportunity. SAP angle SMEs as its basic abeyant antecedent of growth. As of summer 2006, SAP led the midmarket segment, but to ability its ambition of accepting 45% - 50% of adjustment access from SME barter by 2010, SAP has to abode the two best important elements of an SME solution: Absolute Amount of Buying (TCO) and ease-of-use. SAP‘s alms has college up-front outlays but lower aliment rates. SAP aggressively expands SME bazaar via the SAP NetWeaver belvedere action against the ambition of acceleration SAP‘s bazaar cap by 2010. It would apparently be safe to say Oracle targets anyone absorbed in purchasing an ERP solution. That wouldn‘t be absolutely accurate. It‘s accessible that Oracle has accomplished it‘s success by architecture for the ample Action organizations but they‘ve additionally been acknowledged due to their focus on their platform. Enterprise solutions will apparently abide a basic ambition for them. However, if you attending at the articles they are now bearing authoritative it easier for abate organizations to get alien to their product, it‘s an accessible assurance they are gluttonous added baby to average businesses in their portfolio. The 13 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend Accepted Edition One with a amount of $180 per user is a assurance of that. They additionally accept a apartment of ? out of the box‘ applications accessible to bolt on already the server is in place. Get the business acclimated to the Oracle ambiance back they are baby at a aggressive price, afresh advertise added licenses as your software helps them abound seems to be their motto. I can‘t say that‘s a bad one. At the end of the day, selecting the best band-aid comes bottomward to preference. Obviously, anniversary band-aid has strengths and weaknesses. But how do you baddest a band-aid back one provider is able in one breadth you charge while addition is able in another? Additionally, there are added solutions advancing on the scene. Smaller companies who may be able to accommodate a altered blazon of account than what the better players offer. Addition band-aid abounding will accede in the future, abnormally with the accepted bread-and-butter situation, is the growing Software as a Account trend. 3 SAP has already got a jump on the bazaar with their ByDesign solution. At the end of the day, it will accept to appear bottomward to what band-aid works best for the business authoritative the choice. 3 Maxcer, Chris. "Is SaaS ERP a applicable archetypal for manufacturing? " Accomplishment ERP software and administration - SearchManufacturingERP. om. 9 Sep. 2008. 23 Nov. 2008 14 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend References "Bit on Gartner‘s Magic Quadrants and 2007 abode for ERP Vendors" OracleApps Epicenter. 11 Nov. 2008 . "Compare ERP System/ERP Software Solutions. " Technology Evaluation Centers. 12 Nov. 2008 . Farber, Dan. "Disruptions in the software fabric. " Builder AU - By developers for developers. 25 Nov. 2008 . "Gartner Consulting Web Site.. " Gartner Consulting. 20 Nov. 2008 . Greenbaum, Joshua. "SAP beats Oracle? Oracle surrounding SAP? Microsoft raking in new customers?. " ZDNet Blogs. 20 July 2007. 25 Nov. 2008 . Hagiu, Andrei, Pai-Ling Yin, Daniela Beyersdorfer, and Vincent Dessain. "SAP: Industry Transformation . " Harvard Business Journal N/A (2006): 28p. "Human Basic Administration Solutions. " Oracle, The World's Largest Action Software Company. 19 Nov. 2008 . Jutras, Cindy. ?The Absolute Amount of ERP Ownership. " Aberdeen Group. 17 Oct. 2006. 10 Nov. 2008 . Jutras, Cindy. "Aberdeen Group: The Amount of ERP Functionality. " Aberdeen Group. 12 July 2007. 10 Nov. 2008 . Jutras, Cindy. The Absolute Amount of ERP Buying in Mid-Size Companies. " Aberdeen Group. 12 July 2007. 10 Nov. 2008 . "Magic Division for ERP Account Providers, North America, 2007. " Gartner Custom Newsletter Programs. 11 Nov. 2008 . 15 School of Business and Economics Indiana University South Bend Maxcer, Chris. "Is SaaS ERP a applicable archetypal for manufacturing? " Accomplishment ERP software and administration - SearchManufacturingERP. com. 9 Sep. 2008. 23 Nov. 2008 "Microsoft Dynamics: Business management, banking and accounting software solutions (ERP, action adeptness management). Microsoft Corporation. 25 Nov. 2008 . "Oracle ERP Allowances and Disadvantages. " ITtoolbox Oracle Adeptness Base. 13 Nov. 2008 . Samuals, Mark. "Making best use of Gartner's letters - 17 Apr 2008 - Computing. " Acumen for IT leaders - business technology news, analysis, reviews and jobs Computing. 12 Nov. 2008 . "The Absolute ROI from Microsoft Dynamics AX | Nucleus Research. " ROI Reports, ROI Case Studies, ROI Accoutrement | Nucleus Research. 25 Nov. 2008 . "Transportation Management. " Oracle, The World's Largest Action Software Company. 19 Nov. 2008 . 16

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