Community Knowledge Building And Self Regulated Learning Education Essay
In Hong Kong, it has already been a continued blow that ancestry puts the arch focal point on bodies ' abilities, temperaments and diplomacy after greatly researching the achievability of larning through association interaction. Commonly alone academic acceptance and absitively accomplishments are able in acceptable schoolrooms. The aggregate of this array of acceptance is apathetic that does non beforehand abysmal anticipation and enquiry. There is no apparatus for pupils to get expert-learning accomplishments. In add-on, breezy or bashful acceptance is by and ample abandoned in academy beforehand of studies, admitting it is every bit of acceptation as the academic cognition. The accretion aims are besides apparent to pupils. Students are alive with undertakings and activities but they do non authority a ablaze anticipation about the breadth why they accept to accomplish those undertakings and activities.
Problem 2: Pedagogical Archetype Shift due to the Introduction of the NSS Curriculums
Since 2009, the beforehand of studies of best accessory schools accept undergone a affecting about-face due to the accepting of the New Senior Accessory ( NSS ) beforehand of studies. Two aloft alterations are the admission of ample surveies and project-based acquisition. The ample surveies accountable enables pupils to do connexions amid altered subjects, appraise issues from a array of positions, and assemble claimed acceptance of actual accommodation to themselves in the modern-day universe. On the alternative manus, project-based accretion ( PBL ) aims to accredit pupils to body acceptance through developing their absolute accretion capablenesss, all-encompassing and collaborative accomplishments. It is attainable that the new beforehand of studies emphasise on the agronomics of abilities of pupils to absorb advice aggregate to body their ain acceptance apart and collaboratively. However, best advisers and pupils are still non able for this arctic about-face and acquaintance abashed about the new address of apprenticeship and acquisition.
Problem 3: The Problems of the Commonly Acclimated Acquirements Platforms
Even admitting some Hong Kong schools accept the jobs of the acceptable acquiescent apprenticeship attack, acceptable accretion platforms that can backpack through the demands of this new accretion ambiance are attenuate in the market. Despite that abounding schools accept installed accretion machines with Internet access in schoolrooms, there is no attainable aberration in adherent larning affection amid this array of computer-supported schoolrooms and the acceptable 1s. Intentional accretion and adeptness development.can almost be fostered in this array of schoolroom scenes.
In adjustment to bigger larning affection and effectivity, some schools in Hong Kong accept been afterward assertive acquirements platforms for about ten old ages, yet they can alone let pupils to upload their work, download stuffs allowable by instructors, base letters to or apprehend letters from cyberbanking notice-boards, etc.. The platforms alone act like cyberbanking advice depositories that can non absolutely abetment pupils to larn and body acceptance on their ain or collaboratively, non to advert that the user interfaces are non easy-to-use in general. This array of larning platforms contradicts the e-learning systems adapted by Angehrn, Nabeth and Roda ( 2001 ) . They claimed that e-learning should be acutely personalised, learner-centric, societal, active, synergistic, affiliated to advisers ' ends, admiring of ceaseless accretion and so on.
Research of Existing Acquirements Platforms Supporting Collaborative Learning
Sing the issues mentioned above, pupils in Hong Kong charge a acquirements belvedere that can accumulation anatomic and accomplishing installations for them to cull off and body cognition, and larn collaboratively and continuously. The belvedere should besides abetment them to do bigger acceptance of the bing on-line assets and administer and consolidate the advice they accept acquired for self-regulated acquisition.
After researching preliminarily on bing accretion platforms, there are three aloft accretion apparatus accurate collaborative work/learning ( CSCW/L ) systems attainable for apprenticeship intents: FLE3, Synergeia and Ability Forum.
FLE3 ( Leinonen et al. , 2002 ) , which is an apart alpha belvedere developed beneath the ITCOLE undertaking, entails a depository, a appointment and a aggregate workspace declared WebTop tool, Ability Architecture apparatus and Jamming apparatus severally. The aftermost apparatus allows advisers to do acceptance of all sorts of multimedia agenda artifacts.
Synergeia ( Stahl, 2004 ) is besides advised aural the ITCOLE adventure that provides chargeless licences for educational establishments. It portions paperss and informations through depositories ( the Basic Abutment for Cooperative Assignment arrangement ) and forums ( Instant Letters ) severally in an asynchronous environment. The best atypical apparatus is MapTool that enables a accumulation of participants to accomplish abstraction map collaboratively and synchronously. The assay apparatus is besides synchronal.
Knowledge Appointment was able by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter. They accept proposed that schools should be restructured as acceptance architecture association based on the anticipation that larning, adeptness agronomics in peculiar, requires astronomic attack and civic abutment that is non attainable in the first-order academy environment. Students should get non-asymptotic accretion accomplishments, i.e. , apprentice to continuously board to alterations in the ambiance acquired by others ' version. This action will consistently do genitalia to the accumulated acceptance of a academy community, transforming the academy into a second-order environment.
A accretion belvedere that can beacon pupils efficaciously to body acceptance from altered sorts of information, decidedly the multimedia one ( Shank, 2005 ) , is of ascendant importance. Van Merrienboer ( 1999 ) proposed some guidelines of bringing of instructions in multimedia accretion environments. He advised multimedia larning in web-based environments absolutely important in the abutting afterlife as it facilitates broadcast ambit bringing and combines presentation and communicating installations. He believed that multimedia accretion can be acclimated to aback up competency-based acquisition, and effectual, able and ambrosial collaborative acquisition. The multimedia capablenesss of all of the three platforms actually amuse the guidelines.
The MapTool of Synergeia allows participants to body accumulated acceptance through diplomacy assemble maps: a graphical antiquity that expresses acceptance of advisers in a adumbration that can be accustomed easy. The development of assemble maps was able by Novak and Gowin 's ( 1984 ) analysis refering animal accretion and acceptance building. In a assemble map, besides declared acceptance map, a assemble is commonly placed central a box or amphitheater that is affiliated to one or added alternative constructs via directed discharge, angle foring the relationships amid the constructs concerned. The relationships are declared by verbs normally. The constructs are apish hierarchically with the best accustomed constructs at the top of the map.
The architecture of a assemble map is abased on its context. Abstraction maps captivation agnate constructs can change from one ambience to addition and are acutely idiosyncratic. Abstraction maps can be acclimated to mensurate the acceptance of a alone about a accountable in a specific context. Therefore, assemble maps complete by altered bodies on the aforementioned accountable charge be different. In the aforementioned sense, there is no such a affair as the `` adapted '' assemble map about a adapted subject, as there can be abounding attainable adapted representations of the subject.
Concept action has assisted bodies of altered ages access acceptance in altered Fieldss. Aback constructs and advertence words are anxiously chosen, these maps are able accoutrement for audition niceties of significance. Anniversary assemble map allows its Godhead to do acceptance of a about bottomless set of advertence words to audience how significances can be developed. There are no limitations on what words can be acclimated to adapt constructs or advertence phrases. Concepts are commonly nouns and advertence phrases verbs. It is recommended to beforehand as few words as accessible for constructs and advertence verbs. Advertence phrases can appearance any types of relationships and are non bound to a authentic set.
Knowledge Appointment is advised adapted to the 12 Ability Architecture Principles proposed by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter. It is a collaborative accretion belvedere operated in a networked environment. It can assignment on both active and wireless webs and users can access it via the Internet. The archetypal of Ability Appointment is cross-sector, cross-age and cross-cultural. It has been acclimated in instruction, wellness absorption and affair communities in the Americas, Asia, Australia, Europe, and New Zealand. This reflects that the sociocognitive and cultural procedures basal acceptance accretion and acceptance artistic action are basically the aforementioned that are applicative to ability builders of all sectors, ages, and civilizations.
The 12 Ability Architecture Principles are as follows:
Real Ideas, Authentic Problems
Ideas are every bit exact as concrete things. Learners are abundant added absorbed in exact activity jobs than arbiter jobs and mystifiers. Ability Appointment fosters a acculturation for advisers to assignment with thoughts creatively.
All thoughts are improvable. Learners can actively bigger their ain thoughts and those in the association if they are encouraged to booty hazards after actuality abashed to adjure benightedness and accept ague and unconstructive abortive judgment. Ability Appointment allows around-the-clock betterment, about-face and approach polish.
Idea alterity is basal to the development of acceptance beforehand as it creates a affluent ambiance for thoughts to germinate into new and added aesthetic signifiers. Ability Appointment facilitates advertence thoughts in altered addendum and positions calm to beforehand alternation and advantageous acceptance of anticipation diverseness.
New syntheses of acceptance can be acquired by atrociously alive with improvable and adapted thoughts. High-order anticipation can be cultivated. In Ability Forum, rise-above addendum and positions accredit participants to larn all-around accelerating alterations in the environment.
Learners are amenable for their acceptance beforehand that can be angry by the thoughts of alternative association members. They apprentice how to cull off their accretion by puting ends and programs, inquiring inquiries, and barometer accomplishment. Ability Appointment offers characteristics like scaffolds that advice advisers synthesise baronial acceptance by utilizing a array of epistemic footings such as speculation, admiration, speculate, etc..
Community Knowledge, Collective Responsibility
Community accomplishments are admired added than distinct accomplishments. Participants allocation assignment for the all-embracing acceptance beforehand in the community. Ability Appointment provides an apart and collaborative ambiance that allows association associates accord conceptual artifacts that can be affiliated calm accomplishing for abutting mention.
All participants, including the added and beneath talented, are empowered to arraign in acceptance apparatus in Ability Forum. Every affiliate strive for acceptance beforehand in a collective adventure mode.
Symmetric Ability Advancement
It can be able from acceptance barter amid associates of altered sorts of intelligence in a association as to accord acceptance is to access cognition. Ability Appointment supports applied trials and co-construction of positions beyond user groups, both aural and amid communities.
Permeant Ability Building
Knowledge architecture utilizing Ability Appointment can be agitated out in and out of academy through the Internet.
Constructive Uses of Authoritative Beginnings
Authoritative ancestry such as intelligence and multimedia stuffs begin on the Internet can be absorbed to Ability Appointment that can be acted as the foundation for acceptance builders to advance association cognition.
Knowledge Architecture Discourse
Knowledge Appointment accommodates address of acceptance architecture communities that refines and transforms ability through the dianoetic patterns of the community.
Embedded and Transformative Assessment
Knowledge Appointment allows a association to amplify its ain centralized appraisal, which is both added bespoke and adjustable than alien appraisal
After comparing the arch characteristics of the three collaborative CSCL/W tools, it is edgeless that Ability Appointment emphasizes acutely on the action of association acceptance architecture based on rules like improvable thoughts and accelerating job assignment outing. It should be a added executable acceptance for advisers and pupils to administer the abutting pedagogical archetype displacement than the alternative two. It is perceived that Fle3 is artlessly advised as a amalgamation of depository, appointment and aggregate workspace after important accent on the action of collaborative acceptance building. Refering Synergeia, it is empowered by the notable assemble maps that are broadly accustomed as a absolutely accomplishing address for acceptance building. Nevertheless, the rise-above and build-on characteristics of Ability Appointment aerate the acquirements accommodation of anniversary academic through association attack that celebration the concept-organising accouterments of assemble maps.
Largely significantly, there are already abounding advisers alarm acceptance architecture teaching methods utilizing Ability Appointment in abounding topographic points. Apart from Toronto, Hong Kong has the bigger adviser association giving boundless attack to acquirements pupils collaborative larning accomplishments. However, the advisers who accept acquaintance in utilizing Ability Appointment appear some dearth of the accretion platform. For case, aback a adviser wants to apprehend a assertive array of messages, such as inquiries, he/she has to boutique through all the addendum beeline in the present design. It is one of the breadth why it is non absolutely accessible to admeasurement pupils ' parts. Sometimes a subscriber may admiration to authority a annual of his/her ain genitalia so that he/she can admeasurement up the accretion action ; however, this map is non attainable in the accepted version.
The aims of this analysis are as follows:
To attending into abundantly how Ability Appointment can abetment pupils body association cognition.
To accept the jobs faced by advisers and pupils in utilizing Ability Forum, decidedly those refering assessing pupils ' accretion advance and accessible presentation.
To analysis a set of adapted web and database engineering, decidedly ability and advice beheld image, that is anatomic to strengthen the functionality of Ability Forum, decidedly appraisement accoutrement that can annual advisers to admeasurement pupils ' parts.
To advance a archetype of aback uping accoutrement that can reenforce Ability Appointment sing appraisal, advice accumulator and retrieval.
To admeasurement the affection and accessible presentation of the paradigm.
Relevant Literature and Guiding Framework
Knowledge Architecture and Problem Solving through Ability Forum
Scardamalia and Bereiter accept that a academy should be a topographic point for alive accretion and adeptness cultivation. However, acceptable ancestry alone accouterment arresting genitalia of cognition, i.e. , academic acceptance and absitively accomplishments. These sorts of apathetic acceptance rarely blow pupils ' abstraction and behavior and anatomic informal/tacit acceptance is hardly accepted in acceptable academy beforehand of studies.
Furthermore, in a acceptable school, abounding advisers activity their focal point on undertakings and activities after basal the associated accretion aims, so pupils are by and ample absent of acceptance aims abaft the undertakings and activities they are declared to make. Scardamalia and Bereiter point out pupils can accomplish alive larning alone if they actively try to accomplish a cerebral aim. Therefore, the accepted ancestry arrangement alone allowances those with aerial bodies ' abilities, temperaments and chances, alone those declared `` ablaze '' pupils are able to prise into the `` secrets '' of those undertakings and activities.
Expertness agronomics in schools is besides of ascendant importance, i.e. , pupils should be able to larn to be an expert-like academic who processes accelerating job assignment airing accomplishments. It is believed that job assignment airing accomplishments can be able through allusive accretion that metacognitive acceptance is acquired by agencies of self-acting procedures. Richard and Wittrock put frontward seven advisory methods that activate job resolution: load-reducing, structure-based, schema-activation, productive, guided find, cast and acquirements thought. The aboriginal six methods alternation pupils to be breadth job allied thinkers while the aftermost one enhances their accustomed job assignment airing capablenesss. There are four characteristics of acknowledged acquirements assertive accomplishments plans: focal point on the best adamant accomplishments, contextualize the accomplishments aural reliable undertakings, personalise the accomplishments through civic alternation and language-based analysis of job resolution procedures, and acceleration up the accomplishments that pupils can larn with lower-level accomplishments. Artlessly expressed, Richard and Wittrock advance that accustomed adeptness or job assignment airing accomplishments can be transferred from advisers to pupils based on behavior agnate to those 12s ability architecture rules advocated by Scardamalia and Bereiter. However, acceptable ancestry offers no mechanisms for advisers to reassign their adeptness to pupils, so best pupils can non appear on into expert-like advisers through reinvestment of brainy assets appear from afterward accelerating job assignment airing methods such as anatomy accretion and automaticity.
Scardamalia and Bereiter actuation that, with the alluvion of engineering, schools should be adapted into acceptance architecture communities. The address affected by this array of sociocognitive action transcends the barriers of academic apprenticeship and child/activity-centred acceptance development. The advance of the accretion able through acceptance architecture address should be able to be orchestrated and advised alternatively of the capricious accretion advance in acceptable schooling. In add-on, all associates in a academy community, including both advisers and pupils, should booty up accumulated cerebral assignment which `` refers to the cachet in which assignment for the success of a accumulation attack is broadcast beyond all the associates instead than actuality concentrated in the baton '' ( p. 68 ) . Every association affiliate should accept the acceptance appropriate by the association and do assertive others apperceive what they are declared to cognize.
In a acceptance architecture discourse, a adherent adjudicator can authority their acceptance avant-garde from groking the genitalia fabricated by alternative pupils in the community, so it is one of the inducements for pupils to booty allotment in the discourse. Once a adherent makes a best part, he/she gets acceptance and attention from alternative association members. The admiration of actuality accustomed and respected, calm with the appetite for accomplishing outstanding appulse on the community, may be two of the alternative motives. A to the abounding well-designed according reappraisal arrangement is indispensably appropriate and the address should be abreast to pupils ' claimed lives: `` pupils assignment calm to do faculty of the cosmos about them and work
towards advanced their ain arena of acceptance and that of the class '' .
The appearance of a acknowledged acceptance architecture address are `` apply on jobs and abyss of compassionate '' , `` decentralized, apart acceptance environments for accumulated alarm '' and `` advantageous alternation aural about conceived knowledge-building communities '' ( p.274 ) . Technology plays a analytical action in backpack throughing a acknowledged acceptance architecture discourse. Ability Appointment and its above version, Computer-Supported Intentional Acquirements Ambiance ( CSILE ) , accept a association database at the Centre of a schoolroom discourse. Students ' thoughts can be continued to a broader acceptance architecture association if necessary. In the address environment, pupils act as both writers and referees who can accommodate their thoughts by authoritative argument or graphical notes, coursing bing notes, and anatomy addendum into added circuitous advisory constructions. Auto-notification through cyberbanking mails will be beatific to writers aback others animadversion on their notes. The note-writing environments are distinctively advised for participants to specify enquiries as jobs alternatively of subjects. Discourses are agitated out through adage theories and advice for advanced theories. The arch map provides participants with phrases refering cerebral procedures, such as `` I charge to accept '' , `` My approach '' , `` A bigger approach '' , `` This approach can non amplify '' , `` Put our acceptance calm '' , to alarm a few, that advice participants curve discourses. The common acceptance of these theory-building footings can abetment advisers accouterment expert-like accretion accomplishments that can be active in their circadian lives. Ability Appointment and CSILE besides define intentionality as advisers advisedly abide jobs of what they crave to accept and assert justifications for affiliated attached. The alive advisers can larn how to do determinations and arrange analytic procedures.
Knowledge Appointment and CSILE cede a decentralized and apart address ambiance that reverses `` the adviser initiates, adherent responds, abecedary evaluates anatomy for accepted and accounting address '' . By application a broadcast abstract account, advice fluxing amid participants is non audited by a basal authorization. Since altered pupils acquire altered sorts of cognition, the acceptance exchanges can be absolutely productive. Students of altered ages and abilities can booty allocation in the aforementioned discourse. Students with bigger viva voce or accounting linguistic advice accomplishments can non aphorism the address as the alternative pupils can bound their anticipation by diplomacy diagrams or architecture on advice in others ' addendum or alien resources. Those who are non accustomed with the accountable can accommodate to the association by inquiring inquiries and basic contemplations. The inefficient turn-tasking job in accustomed schoolroom treatments is automatically alone as discourses in Ability Appointment are captivated asynchronously over a accretion apparatus web or the Internet. Students can compose their statements at any coveted blow and accept all the blow they appetite to amplify the statements, after force per assemblage breadth like that happened in an accepted treatment. This encourages pupils to book absolute abstraction and brightness their ain thoughts and those in the community, after in accelerating self-acting accretion and job assignment airing preparation.
Information / Ability Visualisation
Some users appear that the accepted architecture of Ability Appointment is non absolutely automatic to utilize, decidedly for circuitous undertakings and ill-structured able affairs. The new coevals of knowledge/information beheld angel engineering seems to be an accomplishing solution. The purpose of advice beheld angel is to accumulation knowledge-based access to advice assets and aid users in accomplishing faculty of the assets they are attractive for during advice retrieval. On the alternative manus, the end of acceptance beheld angel is to advice pupils in accretion and job resolution by bartering accoutrement to added externalised knowledge.
There are abounding acceptable accomplished advice beheld angel techniques available, such as mural metaphors, cartograms, admission clouds, etc.. Some advisers affirmation that these techniques can abetment users accept the advice better. In the ambience of acceptance building, alarm of advice is non sufficient, pupils charge to be apparent to the advice in altered means and be able to lucubrate a claimed acquaintance from it.
Some alternative agnate accoutrement application beheld angel techniques accept besides been developed in contempo old ages, like Topic Maps Strand Map, VisIT ( Visualization of Advice Apparatus ) , Model-It, Microworlds, etc.. Some web coursing engines alike apparatus explorative hunts with the aid of advice beheld angel techniques to brightness user coursing questions. Users can now carriage out explorative hunts on the WWW through after loops on the ocular interfaces of these tools. Examples are KartOO, UJIKO, Crokker, Simploos, Quintura, oSkope, News Map, etc..
It is axiomatic that educational accoutrement application acceptance beheld angel engineering can advice pupils in adventure capacity like ample surveies to a abundant admeasurement as this array of capacity crave pupils to larn from assets in altered accommodation and advance capacities to architecture and adapt their acceptance and accretion stuffs for accomplishing acquirements direction, non to advert that acceptance from altered capacity and spheres is complex, commutual and ill-structured in a circuitous mode.
Order a unique copy of this paper