Cognitive Dissonance Classic in Psychology

Cognitive Antagonism Archetypal in Attitude Areej Alemer [Instructor’s Name] [Class Title] Cerebral Antagonism Archetypal in Attitude Introduction There were acclaimed abstracts conducted in attitude and abounding of these abstracts gave scientists a new angle on compassionate people. In the 1950s, scientists began administering analysis about the aftereffect of amusing pressures and access to the behavior of people. Among these scientists is Leon Festinger. He became a able-bodied accustomed scientist about the affair amusing access through his acclaimed approach of cerebral dissonance[1]. Cognitive Antagonism Festinger came about this approach in the 1950s at a time back a doomsday band admiring media attention. The band admirable a assertive god alleged Sananda. Band associates believed that Sananda gave them these warnings The insurgence of the Atlantic basal will deluge the acreage of the Atlantic seaboard; France will sink…. Russia will become one abundant sea… a abundant beachcomber rushes to the Rocky Mountains… for the purpose of antibacterial it of the earthling and creating a new order. [2] Believers claimed that these warnings would appear in midnight of December 21. Festinger got absorbed with the band and in his apperception he had these questions: “What would appear back on the midnight of December 21, annihilation happens? Would the accumulation lose faith? How do animal beings acknowledge back apocalypse fails? ”[3] Festinger activate out that back the apocalypse bootless the believers did not lose their faith. They activate agency to absolve the bootless prophecy. One of acclaimed account was apple was absolved because the band associates went into action and believed in the prophecy. Christians and Jews will acquisition this absolution not adamantine to believe. In the book of Jonah in the bible, Jonah prophesied that Nineveh would be destroyed by blaze (Jo. 3:1-10). The bodies of Nineveh believed and absitively to fast and put on sackcloth to appearance that they had repented. Alike their baron fasted, sat on ashes and put on sackcloth. Eventually Nineveh was absolved and abolition did not happen. So back band leaders told their associates that the apple was absolved because of assertive Sananda's message, the associates bought it, but not Festinger. To him the explanations are a agglomeration of lies, which he affably alleged “cognitive dissonance. Festinger saw the accomplishment of band leaders in lyng to the media in authoritative excuses to their bootless prophecy. They contacted TV stations ABC and CBS, they adequate New York Times, the phoned the writers of Life, Time and Newsweek and gave dozens of interviews to reporters. [4] These accomplishments according to Slater were “attempts to argue the accessible that their accomplishments and behavior were not in vain. ” The attempts of band leaders to absolve their accomplishments and behavior became the base of Festinger’s approach and abstracts on cerebral dissonance[5]. Through his readings about history, bodies tend to alter (a array of atrocious aegis mechanism) back their acceptance is disconfirmed. He additionally activate out that the “disjunction amid what one believes and the absolute affirmation is awful uncomfortable. ”[6] Back apocalypse of a band fails associates would attack to argue anybody to accompany the band through apocryphal justification. The added bodies accompany the group, the added the associates feel that they were not mistaken. Is it accessible for bodies to appoint in acute lying aloof to accommodate their acutely clashing ideas? Festinger activate out that bodies absolutely lie in adjustment to abstain dissonance. In fact, he apparent several forms of dissonance. According to Cooper , what Festinger empiric in the cult, he alleged it the acceptance disconfirmation paradigm[7]. Back he conducted agreement apropos antagonism and money, he alleged it the bereft accolade paradigm. In his aftermost analysis he additionally articular addition dissonance- abet acquiescence paradigm[8]. To access cerebral antagonism approach it is important to analysis Festinger’s experiment. The Experiment But to be able to explain Festinger’s agreement and his approach of cerebral dissonance, altercation of the absolute agreement is necessary. Festinger’s agreement is advised a archetypal in attitude and can calmly be retrieved in the net. It was aboriginal appear in the Journal of Abnormal Attitude and was advantaged “Cognitive Consequence of Forced Compliance. ” The agreement cold is to investigate how cerebral antagonism takes abode back bodies are force to comply. Slater artlessly alleged cerebral antagonism as “irreconcilable ideas”[9]. Social Attitude authors such as Brown artlessly authentic cerebral antagonism as a accompaniment of action amid acknowledgment such as beliefs, angle and opinion[10]. It is a perceived aberration aural a person’s brainy processes, in which he believes in article again acts in a altered way from what he believes. Festinger exp[11]eriment aimed to admeasurement the cerebral antagonism aftereffect during force acquiescence and to analysis the authority of the afterward two statements: “If a actuality is induced to do or say something, which is adverse to his clandestine opinion, he tends to change his assessment to accompany accordance to what he has done or said. and “The above the burden acclimated to arm-twist the apparent behavior (beyond the minimum bare to arm-twist it) the weaker will be the above-mentioned tendency”) Festinger and his colleagues accustomed that the above the accolade the bottom would be the consecutive assessment change. Therefore, if one puts their words in analysis adjustment statements, the capital antecedent would be “there is a cogent accord amid the bulk of rewards and the consequence of cerebral dissonance”[12]        To analysis the authority of the hypothesis, Festinger disconnected his capacity into three groups, one controlled accumulation and two beginning groups. The two beginning groups are named- one-dollar accumulation and twenty-dollar accumulation respectively, the name accord to the bulk of money that the two groups will accustomed in adjustment to comply. The capacity for the agreement were academy acceptance and the primary address activated by the researcher was deception. The capacity were told that the agreement is about their behavior on a banausic activity. However, the absolute agreement would abandoned activate back the researcher tries to deceive them, by cogent addition accumulation will be apparent to a capricious in which a amalgamated will acquaint them that the action is enjoyable. However, the aboriginal amalgamated will not appear and that the experimenter needs the respondents to act as proxy and be the one to acquaint lies to the addition accountable (who herself is additionally a confederate) on the addition room. The alignment involves a budgetary accolade a one-dollar for the aboriginal accumulation and a twenty-dollar for the other. The rewards are intended to affect the subject’s behavior or the antagonism effect. Bamboozlement was not included in the ascendancy accumulation to be able to ascendancy its effect. The aboriginal beginning accumulation receives a one-dollar bulk in adjustment to acquaint lies. The addition beginning accumulation receives 20 dollars. The authors theorized that the one-dollar accumulation would access a greater consequence of antagonism compared to the 20 dollars group[13]. By applying statistical analysis and comparing the responses of the beginning accumulation with the ascendancy accumulation the researcher activate out that the one dollar accumulation came to access that the agreement as agreeable area in fact, the ascendancy accumulation finds it acutely boring, the twenty dollar accumulation acquisition the agreement hardly arid not far from the ascendancy groups answer. These after-effects abutment the approach that the abate the accolade the greater is the consequence of the dissonance. Hence the authors accustomed the hypothesis. Festinger’s agreement additionally has limitations. It is abandoned bound to the acknowledgment of the capacity who were mostly academy students. The after-effects ability be altered if conducted on professionals and average age adults. Impact of the Agreement to Attitude Festinger’s allegation were advised a anniversary in psychology. It gave adequate explanations to abstruse animal behaviors. Gawronski[14] provided an example. During the Korean War she wrote, the Chinese were able to argue American prisoners to become communists. They did this not by ache but by alms a bit of rice or candies. In barter of these goodies, Americans were asked to address an anti-American essay. Afterwards the article autograph abounding American soldiers consort communism. Accustomed bodies ability acquisition such behavior abstract and stupid. Why bandy autonomous attempt in barter of a bit of rice? It would be accessible to access that these Americans were bent and went through a abreast afterlife acquaintance that is why they adapted to communism. It is a rational account and actual acceptable. The actuality that Americans accepted communism for a bonbon is article bodies could not accept. Cognitive antagonism approach provided an answer- the simpler the accolade for agreeable in behavior that is adverse with one’s beliefs, the college the addiction of the actuality to change his or her beliefs[15]. Alike admitting this acknowledgment seems to accomplish no sense, it absolutely happens. The one and twenty dollar agreement accurate it. According to Petty, there is a rational account for alteration one’s belief. It was such a abhorrent affair to advertise one’s cocky for a allotment of candy[16]. The affecting affliction would be so great. The actuality may lose his activity of self-worth and may attending at himself an abject individual. Slater coined this activity a “schmuck. To abstain such a feeling, the actuality should appear up with a bigger account for affairs his attempt for a actual bargain price. Festinger’s approach provided an addition account for behaviorism. Formerly Skinner had said rewards reinforce and punishments extinguish. Skinner explained animal behavior through his accolade theory. Bodies accomplish in their ambiance and through this operation they apprentice assertive behaviors. Bodies access behavior through operant conditioning. Skinner took abroad the brainy aspect of humans. He fabricated bodies simple machines that behave through the agency of conditioning. After cerebral antagonism theory, bodies were apparent as abuse apprenticed beings that act not because of conditioning but because of brainy processes. Festinger added the aspect of thoughts in answer animal behavior. His approach challenges the behaviorism. Attitude claimed that apperception and thoughts are not aces of cerebral investigations because they accord to the realms of aesthetics and not empiric science. Festinger apparent that behavior is afflicted by the way bodies think. Psychologists cannot set abreast the apperception and anticipation processes in answer animal behavior. Without because the apperception and anticipation processes, psychologists would never access why American soldiers accepted communism in barter for a allotment of bonbon or a bit of rice. Animal beings are not abandoned motivated by rewards and punishment. For, if this were so, the Chinese will access a adamantine time adequate Americans to accept communism because their action of rewards were not absolutely rewarding. Festinger has fatigued a accurate cessation from his cerebral antagonism theory. Animal are actor beings. They are beings motivated by minds that charge be fabricated comfortable. Reward approach abandoned can never explain animal behavior. Animal beings think. They appoint in the best amazing brainy gymnastics, all aloof to absolve their hypocrisy[17]. Answer Abstruse Animal Behavior Cerebral antagonism approach is not abandoned an affected account for abstruse animal behavior. It is additionally became a apparatus to discredit adoration abnormally Christianity. Using the acceptance – disconfirmation paradigm, one can achieve that the advance of Christianity was due to cerebral antagonism and abridgement of abysmal ability of animal behavior during the aboriginal years of Christianity. Everybody knows for a actuality that Christianity advance through the accomplishment of Jesus’ disciples. Ancient critics of Christianity doubtable that aboriginal Christians had affianced in accumulation hysteria[18]. They collectively had apparent aerial things. Before, cerebral antagonism theory, such allegation of accumulation agitation was absolved because of the martyrdoms of around every advocate of Christ. The advocate would not cede their lives for article that is founded by fallacy. They were austere at the stake, cut into two, crucified upside bottomward and absorbed in baking oil all because they banned to begin their faith. To abstain such abhorrent tortures, all they had to do was to acquaint the emperor that they there were no truths in their claims about Jesus and presto they will be released. But they chose death, advertence that they were not beneath accumulation agitation but had absolutely apparent Christ resurrects from the death. This is a simple Christian defense; it stood advisedly for bags of years until Festinger apparent cerebral dissonance. Cerebral antagonism explained that back apocalypse fails, bodies will not leave their behavior instead, they would actualize lies in adjustment to absolve the bootless apocalypse conceivably alike to the point of afterlife [19]. The apostles of Christ were assured him to chargeless Israel from bondage. This is the assignment of the messiah. They apprehend Jesus to deliver Israel and authorize a new Jewish kingdom. The apostles believed that Jesus was the messiah. They gave up aggregate in adjustment to become Jesus’ disciples. They were promised to accept an important position in Jesus kingdom. They apprehend that the apple will be destroyed by blaze and a new heaven and apple will be created. The commonwealth of Jesus will be accustomed in this new heaven and earth. The apostles will co aphorism with Jesus. But Jesus was dead and aggregate that they access believed angry to ashes. Some larboard Jerusalem and started a new life. Others were larboard and abide to accommodated secretly. This acquisition can be likened to the case of the doomsday cult, in which associates did not go home and accepted their mistakes; instead, they change their behaviors, speeches and way of cerebration to explain anxiously their bootless prophecy. They began alluring added followers admitting of the actuality that their apocalypse failed. They affianced in dissection lying aloof to argue bodies that they were not wrong. If accustomed bodies in the doomsday band had affianced in lying back apocalypse failed, again it was additionally accessible that the apostles had additionally lied. Cognitive antagonism approach states that it was accessible for the apostles not to abjure their acceptance alike until death. Hence, Christianity affliction aegis is weak. Afterwards his death, his apostles affirmation that Jesus is advancing actual anon and acumen day is at hand. Like in the case of the doomsday cult, believers additionally had awash their accouterments and accord the money to the apostles. The apostles access all died but acumen day did not come. Admitting of these, believers became added advancing in recruiting new associates and Christianity grew in numbers. Two thousand years access anesthetized but Christ did not acknowledgment and acumen day was boilerplate to be found[20]. Yet, Pastors and priest were able to acquisition believable account for the delayed additional advancing and bodies absolutely buy it. No breach to Christian readers, but afterwards account affiliate bristles and Festinger’s aboriginal study, it was actual adamantine for this biographer not anticipate that cerebral antagonism was absolutely complex in Christianity. Cerebral antagonism is not aloof a simple amusing attitude experiment. It is a apperception opener, a allegory buster and a accuracy engine. If religious fanatics analyze its basal concepts, they ability leave their faith. Cerebral antagonism approach explained that bodies would lie in adjustment to abstain dissonance. It is the best account why religious cults and organizations do not cease to abide alike admitting their apocalypse and behavior fails or contradicts reasoning. Festinger’s approach is all about the addiction of bodies to lie to abstain discomfort. It is about the arrogance of animal nature. This is the abandoned cessation one can acquire from his experiments. Bodies are hypocrites and appoint in all array of brainy gymnastic in adjustment to absolve their hypocrisy. Cessation Slater believed in cerebral antagonism approach but disagree with Festinger’s adumbration on the arrogance of animal nature. Do bodies lie because of egocentric motive, i. e. to abstain the affliction of actuality a “schmuck” or was there article else. Festinger forgot to acknowledgment the acceptable ancillary of animal nature. All he saw was its addiction to deceive and lie[21]. To appearance that antagonism is acquired by addition elements abreast from selfishness, Slater told a adventure about Linda Santo. Linda Santo has a bed-ridden babe alleged Audrey whom she takes affliction of for the accomplished brace of decades. Her babe got an blow back she was three and became bed ridden from that time on. Linda patiently took affliction of his babe back then. Her bedmate larboard her a few months of the accident. Linda took affliction of Audrey. Audrey admitting invalid is a phenomenon worker, Statues of Mary and Jesus were put abreast her and these statues aftermath phenomenon oil. The oil was acclimated to alleviate affection of any kind. Linda finds an account and was not addled with the miracles. She knew that her babe was a “saint, that God had called Audrey to be a victim soul, to booty on the pains of addition bodies so that they could be healed (121)” It’s a archetypal archetype of cerebral dissonance, the mother award an account for her daughter’s abominable fate. It was not bright whether Linda dispense the miracles and told bodies that her babe takes abroad bodies pains. But according to Slater , if anytime she lied, there was no arrogance in her heart, but love, which makes Festinger appearance of animal attributes somewhat wrong. Bodies do not lie abandoned because they abstain of actuality a blockhead but additionally because they are admiring creatures. Linda was activate to access breast cancer. She consistently underwent therapy. She now takes affliction of herself abandoned abreast from demography affliction of her daughter. Slater wondered why Linda would not ask her babe to alleviate her. Perhaps she knew that the miracles were a fake. She artlessly told Slater that mothers do ask article from their child; it is they who accord article to their child. Slater assured that antagonism is not consistently about selfishness; it’s additionally about love. Slater was a mother and understands actual able-bodied why Linda was accomplishing all this[22]. Perhaps, there is addition anatomy of cerebral antagonism archetype that Festinger bootless to identity. To conclude, Festinger abstracts were absolutely adequate but he bootless to accede the addition aspect of animal attributes such as adulation and caress. Some bodies appoint in antagonism not because of cerebral affliction but because out of adulation aloof in the case of Linda Santo. Bibliographies Brown, Richard, Amusing Attitude 5th Edition New York McGraw Hill. 2006. Cooper, John. Cerebral dissonance: 50 years of a archetypal theory. London: Sage publications. 2007. Gawronski, Brand. Cerebral consistency: A axiological assumption in amusing cognition. New York: Guilford Press. 2011. Myers, Steven. Amusing psychology . Toronto: Graw-Hill Ryerson. 2006. Petty, Ronald . The Meta-Cognitive Model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Social Cognition. 2007. 25(5), 657686. Chen Mark Revisiting the Three Choice Archetype Journal of Personality and Amusing Attitude 2010. 99(4), 573. Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box New York, Penguin Books. 2005. ----------------------- [1] Myers, Steven. Amusing psychology . (Toronto: Graw-Hill Ryerson, 2006) 90-120 [2] Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box (New York, Penguin Books, 2006) 110 [3] Ibid 111 [4] Cooper, John. Cerebral dissonance: 50 years of a archetypal theory. (London: Sage publications, 2007). 90 [5] Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box (New York, Penguin Books, 2006) 111 [6] Cooper, John. Cognitive dissonance: 50 years of a archetypal theory. (London: Sage publications, 2007). 91 [7] Cooper, John. Cerebral dissonance: 50 years of a archetypal theory. (London: Sage publications, 2007). 90 [8] Petty, Ronald . The Meta-Cognitive Model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Amusing Cognition, 2007. 25(5), 657–686. [9] Cooper, John. Cerebral dissonance: 50 years of a archetypal theory. (London: Sage publications, 2007). 92 [10] Brown, Richard Amusing Attitude 5th Edition (New York McGraw Hill, 2006) 91 [11] Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box (New York, Penguin Books, 2006) 115 [12] Cooper, John. Cognitive dissonance: 50 years of a archetypal theory. (London: Sage publications, 2007). 99 [13] Myers, Steven. Amusing psychology . ( Toronto:Graw-Hill Ryerson, 2006) 95 [14] Gawronski,Brand. . Cognitive consistency: A axiological assumption in amusing cognition. (New York: Guilford Press, 2011) 106 [15] Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box (New York, Penguin Books, 2006) 114 [16] Petty, Ronald . The Meta-Cognitive Model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Amusing Cognition, 2007, 25(5), 658. [17] Petty, Ronald . The Meta-Cognitive Model (MCM) of attitudes: Implications for attitude measurement, change, and strength. Amusing Cognition, 2007. 25(5). [18] Myers, Steven. Amusing psychology . (Toronto: Graw-Hill Ryerson, 2006) 99 [19] Brown, Richard Amusing Attitude 5th Edition (New York McGraw Hill, 2006) 91 [20] Chen Mark Revisiting the Three Choice Archetype Journal of Personality and Amusing Psychology. 2010. 99(4), 573. [21] Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box (New York, Penguin Books, 2006) 125 [22] Slater, Laura Opening Skinner’s Box (New York, Penguin Books, 2006) 150

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