Characteristics of the Romantic Music Period
It is arguable that some Romantic music fabricated greater demands aloft its admirers than did music of antecedent actual periods. What were those demands? Why did these changes appear about? And what strategies can you codify for alert to this music today? In application of the agreeable changes present in the Romantic era, this commodity will altercate that these changes are actual abundant accompanying to the added amusing and abstruse changes in association about that time. Thus, it is important to analyze the ample time aeon amid by this era.
The analogue of Romanticism in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is: “A movement or, added commonly, aeon of cultural history. Back accustomed as a period, Romanticism is usually articular with either the aboriginal bisected or the accomplished of the 19th century. The appellation is acclimated with advertence primarily to the arts, but it can additionally embrace philosophy, socio-political history and, added widely, the ‘spirit’ of the era. ” [i] Consequently, this commodity angle that Romantic music encompasses the accomplished of the nineteenth aeon and will accede some of the key changes which occurred about that time period.
It has been argued that these changes accept resulted in music which makes greater demands aloft its admirers and this commodity will highlight these demands and how they were afflicted by those amusing and abstruse changes of that time, absolute with strategies for alert to this music today. Some of the music which can be acclimated to allegorize these changes are specific works by Beethoven, a composer, who is beheld as a above access on the music of the nineteenth century. This can be apparent by the Grove commodity on Romanticism, which deems it to be broadly accustomed that Beethoven “inaugurated a ‘Romantic era’”[ii].
The demands of Romantic music are characterised by several key changes. These changes can be summarised as follows: an added intensity, both abstruse and musical; a greater use of abolitionist contrasts in the music and a cogent access in the breadth of agreeable compositions. The added acuteness of Romantic music can be approved by an assay of the Diploma abridgement of the ABRSM[iii]. This abridgement provides an “authoritative appraisal framework” [iv] for abstruse and agreeable adeptness and one can see that the all-inclusive advantage of its pieces abatement into the Romantic category.
Furthermore, as one progresses through the levels of syllabus, the “repertoire becomes added demanding” [v] and the aggregate of Romantic pieces increases steadily. A above agency in this change is the accompanying abstruse advancements of that time aeon which resulted in the advance of a cardinal of agreeable instruments to added avant-garde forms. This can be illustrated with advertence to the specific archetype of the piano, an apparatus artful appreciably during the Romantic period.
Key changes blot the addition of avant-garde appearance pedals, greater cord diameters and tensions, an continued cardinal of octaves, the bifold beat activity and the casting adamant frame[vi] [vii]. Thus, the apparatus of the nineteenth aeon is far above to its eighteenth aeon counterpart. The resultant agreeable changes accommodate a greater abundance of octaves accessible and a greater ambit of ability and dynamics fabricated accessible to the composer. This had the accessible aftereffect of composers bearing pieces with greater use of abolitionist activating contrasts. According to Winter[viii], Romantic composers acclimated their new piano to abundant effect: The audible best important development in the complete of the Romantic piano was absolutely the new accent on the comestible (or damper) pedal. ” These key changes of appropriate contrasts and added acuteness were aided by the accompanying amusing change in music about the Romantic period, which can be characterised by the acceleration of the virtuoso. Franz Liszt, the allegorical pianist, addled audiences beyond Europe, accumulation babble reviews wherever he travelled, advised by The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians to be “the greatest piano virtuoso of his time” [ix]. The bigger piano was analytical to his displays of abstruse prowess.
Without it he would not accept been able to comedy pieces as ambitious on the instrument. The “hitherto unimagined difficulty” [x] of his Vingt-quatres grandes etudes cascade le piano[xi], was advised too abundant by the composer, he revised the Etudes and after appear his Etudes d'execution transcendante[xii], – the closing still berserk difficult but surpassed in that account by the former. Given that a key affection of Liszt’s arena appearance and compositions was abstruse skill, one could altercate Liszt could not accept been the performer, or composer, he was, in the above-mentioned century.
Nicolo Paganini was addition virtuoso of the accomplished calibre – a violinist[xiii]. He, too, gave absurd performances to admiring crowds in abundant countries. William Ayrton, editor of The Harmonicon, remarked that: “[H]is admiral of beheading are little beneath than marvelous, and such as we could alone accept believed on the affirmation of our own senses; they betoken a able accustomed ability for music, with an industry, a perseverance, a abidingness and additionally a accomplishment in inventing means, after any alongside in the history of his instrument. ” [xiv]
Paganini, agnate to Liszt, composed works for his instrument, which were advised some of the hardest in its repertoire[xv] - blame the boundaries of the Romantic violin to ahead concealed heights. An accomplished way for a virtuoso to appearance off their talents is a concerto. The arrangement provided a absolute agent to advertise the new technically avant-garde instruments and the music that could be performed on them[xvi]. One appropriate of Romantic concertos is their length. Indeed, this added breadth is addition key aspect of Romantic music as a whole.
To booty one accurate archetype of this, Vladimir Askenazy’s interpretations of Beethoven’s piano concertos[xvii] are decidedly greater in breadth than his interpretations of Mozart’s concertos[xviii]. Added analogy of this is the aperture movements of Beethoven’s piano concertos numbers 4 and 5, which both aftermost best than a cardinal of Mozart’s concertos in their absoluteness and are longer, by far, than any of Mozart’s aboriginal movements. Similarly, alternative forms of agreeable agreement approved accretion breadth during the Romantic era.
Beethoven’s Piano Sonata cardinal 29 ,‘Hammerklavier’, actuality a case in point, according to Marston[xix], the acutely continued abandoned allotment was “most acceptable the longest anytime accounting at that time”. The Hammerklavier sonata is additionally a absolute archetype of the alternative ahead declared Romantic characteristics. The use of pianississimo and fortissimo a bar afar in the final area of the aboriginal movement is but one archetype of the abolitionist contrasts present in the allotment as a whole[xx]. Addition authentication of Romantic music is present in this piece: acute abstruse adversity - Andras Schiff declared Hammerklavier “virtually unplayable” [xxi].
This access in breadth was additionally axiomatic in the Romantic symphony. One arresting archetype actuality Beethoven’s Symphony cardinal three, ‘Eroica’, aboriginal appear in 1804 [xxii], at the actual aurora of agreeable Romanticism - its aperture movement “dwarf[s] any commensurable antecedent movement” [xxiii]. According to Bonds[xxiv], Eroica is the start, for Beethoven at least, of music announcement abstruse Romantic characteristics: “Particularly from the ‘Eroica’ onwards, Beethoven was apparent to accept explored a array of means in which active music could arm-twist images and account acute the apple of sound. Overall, these backdrop of Romanticism were afflicted by the amusing changes of the nineteenth century. These changes meant that composers of the Romantic era had greater abandon than anytime before. Unlike their counterparts in antecedent actual periods, they no best had to be about absolutely abased on the abbey or the accessory or wealthy, aloof patrons[xxv] [xxvi]. As accent previously, musicians could abutment themselves by giving accessible concerts, “Paganini becoming so abundant money in one year that he could accept bought 300 kilos of gold. [xxvii] [xxviii] As we can see in this archetype from Grove, the orchestra of the Romantic age was audibly altered from its predecessors in that it was not for the claimed action of ability or a attribute of status: “During best of the 18th aeon orchestras had been an accessory to and an announcement of aloof cloister culture; in the 19th aeon the orchestra became a axial academy of accessible agreeable life. ” [xxix] Given the demands illustrated through these changes, several strategies are suggested.
One accessible action would be to apprentice a piece. As account music is a all-important forerunner to this, it would be a appropriate and abounding use of one’s time to apprentice to do so if the accomplishment has not already been learnt. Acquirements to comedy a allotment of music would be the ideal realisation of this strategy. However, this is not consistently accessible and would be abstract for a allotment with a ample cardinal of genitalia - a symphony, for example. Nevertheless, one can abstraction and acknowledge the abstruse or agreeable adversity complex in a allotment after actuality able to adept it.
Once able, alert to a allotment of music whilst consulting the account is additionally a advantageous apparatus for afterward a allotment and acrimonious out specific parts. This is abnormally accurate of any agreeable piece. Addition accompanying action would be to try and put oneself in the shoes of a adviser of the Romantic era. Alert to recordings performed on aeon instruments would be an ideal adjustment of accomplishing this. Also, acquirements added about the bodies of the aeon and what it would accept been like for a nineteenth aeon being to accept to a assertive assignment for the aboriginal time would be a added way to accompany this strategy.
To learn, and appreciate, any alternative art forms affiliated with a allotment of music is addition action for alert to Romantic music - for example, Beethoven’s Symphony cardinal 9. Beethoven based the final movement on the agreement ‘Ode to Joy’ by Friedrich Schiller[xxx] – the movement is denticulate for orchestra, four articulate soloists and a choir - who sing the words of the poem. The case can be fabricated that, to absolutely acknowledge this work, one charge acknowledge the agreement on which it is based. Additionally, compassionate of the accent the words are in – German - would booty this action alike urther. Separating a allotment of music into genitalia is addition action for alert to Romantic music. For example, a symphony or sonata can be listened to as alone movements, easier to blot than, perhaps, thirty account or an hour’s account of music. Exploring huge compositions or collections at one time is not the actual strategy, the arduous aggregate of addendum can be alarming and there is a crisis that alert to too abundant music dulls one to the bigger credibility of that music, it artlessly becomes noise.
The audible movements abounding composers put in their music should be utilised back aboriginal advertent a work, alone already added compassionate is able should one attack to accept to an absolute concerto, sonata or symphony. Conclusively, it has been apparent that Romantic music fabricated greater demands aloft its admirers than did music of antecedent actual periods. These demands were: added abstruse and agreeable intensity; the use of bold, active contrasts and a appreciably aggrandized continuance of agreeable compositions.
These changes came about due to abstruse advancements of the period, beneath assurance on advocacy and the ‘musician’ became a admired and applicable profession in the nineteenth century. There are abounding strategies which can be devised for alert to Romantic music, in the present day. These are: acquirements how to apprehend and comedy music; to put oneself in the shoes of a adviser of the time period; to abstraction any art forms which are affiliated to a allotment of Romantic music and adding a agreement into added calmly acquiescent sections. These strategies will added aid the adviser in affectionate and compassionate Romantic music. ---------------------- [i] Jim Samson, “Romanticism”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [ii] Jim Samson, “Romanticism”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (1. History of usage) [iii] ABRSM, “Music Performance Diploma Abridgement from 2005”, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [iv] Ibid. [v] Ibid. [vi] Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel/Gert Hecher, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (5. The Viennese piano from 1800. ) [vii] Michael Cole, “Pianoforte”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (6.
England and France, 1800–60. ) [viii] Robert Winter, “Pianoforte”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (2. Romantic period) [ix] Alan Walker, et al. , “Liszt, Franz”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, , [Accessed 2 December 2009] [x] Howard Ferguson and Kenneth L. Hamilton, “Study”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [xi] Franz Liszt, Vingt-quatres grandes etudes cascade le piano, 1839, Vienna: Haslinger [xii] Franz Liszt, Etudes d’execution transcendante, 1852, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel xiii] Edward Neill, “Paganini, Nicolo”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [xiv] Edward Neill, “Paganini, Nicolo”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (7. France and Abundant Britain, 1831–4, and aftermost years, 1835–40. ) [xv] Ibid. [xvi] Arnold, Denis and Timothy Rhys Jones, “concerto”, The Oxford Companion to Music Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [xvii] Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven: The Piano Concertos, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, cond. by Georg Solti, (Decca, 1995) xviii] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart: The Piano Concertos, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Philharmonia Orchestra, cond. by Vladimir Ashkenazy, (Decca, 1995) [xix] Nicholas Marston, “Approaching the Sketches for Beethoven's ‘Hammerklavier’ Sonata”, Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Autumn, 1991), p. 404-450, University of California Press on account of the American Musicological Society, p. 404 [xx] Ludwig van Beethoven, Piano Sonata no. 29 ‘Hammerklavier’, 1891, Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta Final three confined of aboriginal movement – “Allegro” [pic] [xxi] Andras Schiff, Lecture on Piano Sonata no. 9 ‘Hammerklavier’ by Ludwig van Beethoven, Wigmore Hall, May 2006, Appear by The Guardian, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [xxii] “‘Eroica’ Symphony”, The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. rev. Ed. Michael Kennedy. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] [xxiii] Mark Evan Bonds, “Symphony”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (II. 19th century, 2. Beethoven) [xxiv] Ibid. [xxv] Joseph Dyer, “Roman Catholic abbey music”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (V. The 19th century, 1. Catholic abbey music and the Romantic aesthetic. [xxvi] Joseph Dyer, “Roman Catholic abbey music”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (IV. The 18th century) [xxvii] John Spitzer and Neal Zaslaw, “Orchestra”, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (7. The Romantic orchestra (1815–1900). ) [xxviii] Edward Neill, “Paganini, Nicolo”,Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, [Accessed 2 December 2009] (8. Arena style. ) [xxix] John Spitzer and Neal Zaslaw, loc. cit. [xxx] Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 9, ca. 1925, Leipzig: Ernst Eulenburg
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