INTRODUCTION Today's microprocessors action a general-purpose architectonics which has its own advantages and disadvantages. ? Adv: One dent can run a ambit of programs. That's why you don't charge abstracted computers for adapted jobs, such as crunching spreadsheets or alteration agenda photos ? Disadv: For any one application, abundant of the chip's dent isn't needed, and the attendance of those "wasted" circuits slows things down. Suppose, instead, that the chip's circuits could be tailored accurately for the botheration at hand--say, computer-aided design--and afresh rewired, on the fly, back you loaded a tax-preparation program.
One set of chips, little bigger than a acclaim card, could do about anything, alike alteration into a wireless phone. The bazaar for such able marvels would be huge, and would construe into lower costs for users. So computer scientists are hatching a atypical absorption that could access number-crunching power--and trim costs as well. Alarm it the chameleon chip. Chameleon chips would be an addendum of what can already be done with field-programmable aboideau arrays (FPGAS). An FPGA is covered with a filigree of wires. At anniversary crossover, there's a about-face that can be semipermanently opened or bankrupt by sending it a adapted signal.
Usually the dent charge aboriginal be amid in a little box that sends the programming signals. But now, labs in Europe, Japan, and the U. S. are developing techniques to rewire FPGA-like chips anytime--and alike software that can map out dent that's optimized for specific problems. The chips still won't change colors. But they may able-bodied blush the way we use computers in years to come. it is a admixture amid custom dent circuits and programmable logic. in the case back we are accomplishing awful achievement aggressive tasks custom chips that do one or two things spectacularly rather than lot of things abundantly is used.
Now appliance acreage programmed chips we accept chips that can be rewired in an instant. Appropriately the allowances of customization can be brought to the accumulation market. [pic]A reconfigurable processor is a dent with erasable accouterments that can rewire itself dynamically. This allows the dent to acclimate bigger to the programming tasks accepted by the accurate software they are interfacing with at any accustomed time. Ideally, the reconfigurable processor can transform itself from a video dent to a axial processing assemblage (cpu) to a cartoon chip, for example, all optimized to acquiesce applications to run at the accomplished attainable speed.
The new chips can be alleged a "chip on demand. " In activated terms, this adeptness can construe to immense adaptability in agreement of accessory functions. For example, a distinct accessory could serve as both a camera and a band recorder (among abundant alternative possibilities): you would artlessly download the adapted software and the processor would reconfigure itself to optimize achievement for that function. Reconfigurable processors, aggressive in the bazaar with adequate hard-wired chips and several types of programmable microprocessors.
Programmable chips accept been in actuality for over ten years. Agenda arresting processors (DSPs), for example, are high-performance programmable chips acclimated in corpuscle phones, automobiles, and assorted types of music players. Accession version, programmable argumentation chips are able with arrays of anamnesis beef that can be programmed to accomplish accouterments functions appliance software tools. These are added adjustable than the specialized DSP chips but additionally slower and added expensive. Hard-wired chips are the oldest, cheapest, and fastest - but additionally the atomic adjustable - of all the options. Chameleon chips
Highly adjustable processors that can be reconfigured accidentally in the field, Chameleon's chips are advised to abridge advice arrangement architectonics while carrying added price/performance numbers. The chameleon dent is a aerial bandwidth reconfigurable communications processor (RCP). it aims at alteration a system's architectonics from a alien location. This will beggarly added able handhelds. Processors accomplish at 24,000 16-bit actor operations per added (MOPS), 3,000 16-bit actor multiply-accumulates per added (MMACS), and accommodate 50 channels of CDMA2000 chip-rate processing.
The 0. 25-micron chip, the CS2112 is an example. These new chips are able to rewire themselves on the fly to actualize the exact accouterments bare to run a allotment of software at the absolute speed. an archetype of such affectionate of a dent is a chameleon chip. this can additionally be alleged a “chip on demand” “Reconfigurable accretion goes a footfall aloft programmable chips in the bulk of flexibility. It is not alone attainable but about commonplace to "rewrite" the silicon so that it can accomplish new functions in a breach second. Reconfigurable chips are artlessly the acute end of programmability. ”
The all-embracing achievement of the ACM can beat the DSP because the ACM alone constructs the absolute accouterments bare to assassinate the software, admitting DSPs and microprocessors force the software to fit its accustomed architecture. One acumen that this blazon of versatility is not attainable today is that handheld accessories are about congenital about awful optimized specialty chips that do one affair absolutely well. These chips are fast and about cheap, but their circuits are absolutely accounting in bean -- or at atomic in silicon. A multipurpose apparatus would accept to accept abounding specialized chips -- a cher and clumsy solution.
Alternately, you could use a general-purpose microprocessor, like the one in your PC, but that would be apathetic as able-bodied as expensive. For these reasons, dent designers are axis added to reconfigurable hardware—integrated circuits breadth the architectonics of the centralized argumentation elements can be abiding and rearranged on the fly to fit accurate applications. Designers of multimedia systems face three cogent challenges in today's ultra-competitive marketplace: Our articles charge do more, bulk less, and be brought to the bazaar quicker than ever.
Though anniversary of these goals is alone attainable, the hat ambush is about unachievable with adequate architectonics and accomplishing techniques. Fortunately, some new techniques are arising from the absorption of reconfigurable accretion that accomplish it attainable to architectonics systems that amuse all three requirements simultaneously. Although originally proposed in the backward 1960s by a researcher at UCLA, reconfigurable accretion is a about new acreage of study. The decades-long adjournment had mostly to do with a abridgement of adequate reconfigurable hardware.
Reprogrammable argumentation chips like acreage programmable aboideau arrays (FPGAs) accept been about for abounding years, but these chips accept alone afresh accomplished aboideau densities authoritative them acceptable for high-end applications. (The densest of the accepted FPGAs accept about 100,000 reprogrammable argumentation gates. ) With an advancing acceleration of aboideau densities every 18 months, the bearings will alone become added favorable from this point forward. The primary artefact is a groundstation accessories for accessory communications.
This appliance involves high-rate communications, arresting processing, and a arrangement of arrangement protocols and abstracts formats. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS Its applications are in, ? data-intensive Internet ? DSP ? wireless basestations ? articulation compression ? software-defined radio ? high-performance anchored telecom and datacom applications ? xDSL concentrators ? anchored wireless bounded bend ? multichannel articulation compression ? multiprotocol packet and corpuscle processing protocols Its advantages are ? can actualize customized communications arresting processors ? added erformance and access calculation ? can added bound acclimate to new requirements and standards ? lower development costs and abate risk. FPGA One of the best able approaches in the branch of reconfigurable architectonics is a technology alleged "field-programmable aboideau arrays. " The action is to body accordant arrays of bags of argumentation elements, anniversary of which can booty on the personality of different, axiological apparatus of agenda circuitry; the switches and affairs can be reprogrammed to accomplish in any adapted pattern, bigger rewiring a chip's dent on demand.
A artist can download a new abject arrangement and abundance it in the chip's memory, breadth it can be calmly accessed back needed. Not so adamantine afterwards all Reconfigurable accouterments aboriginal became activated with the accession a few years ago of a accessory alleged a “field-programmable aboideau array” (FPGA) by Xilinx, an electronics aggregation that is now based in San Jose, California. An FPGA is a dent consisting of a ample cardinal of “logic cells”. These cells, in turn, are sets of transistors alive calm to accomplish simple analytic operations.
Evolving FPGAs FPGAs are arrays of argumentation blocks that are strung calm through software commands to apparatus higher-order argumentation functions. Argumentation blocks are agnate to switches with assorted inputs and a distinct output, and are acclimated in agenda circuits to accomplish bifold operations. Unlike with alternative dent circuits, developers can acclimate both the argumentation functions performed aural the blocks and the access amid the blocks of FPGAs by sending signals that accept been programmed in software to the chip.
FPGA blocks can accomplish the aforementioned accelerated accouterments functions as fixed-function ASICs, and—to assay them from ASICs—they can be rewired and reprogrammed at any time from a alien breadth through software. Although it took several abnormal or added to change access in the ancient FPGAs, FPGAs today can be configured in milliseconds. Field-programmable aboideau arrays accept historically been activated as what is alleged cement argumentation in anchored systems, abutting accessories with antithetical bus architectures.
They accept generally been acclimated to articulation agenda arresting processors—cpus acclimated for agenda arresting processing—to general-purpose cpus. The advance in FPGA technology has aerial the arrays aloft the simple role of accouterment cement logic. With their accepted capabilities, they acutely now can be classed as system-level apparatus aloof like cpus and DSPs. The better of the FPGA accessories bogus by the aggregation with which one of the authors of this commodity is affiliated, for example, has added than 150 billion transistors, seven times added than a Pentium-class microprocessor.
Given today's time-to-market pressures, it is added analytic that all system-level apparatus be attainable to integrate, abnormally back the appearance involving the affiliation of assorted technologies has become the best time-consuming allotment of a product's development cycle. To Amalgam Accouterments and Software systems designers bearing alloyed cpu and FPGA designs can booty advantage of deterministic real-time operating systems (RTOSs). Deterministic software is ill-fitted for authoritative hardware. As such, it can be acclimated to calmly administer the agreeable of arrangement abstracts and the breeze of such abstracts from a cpu to an FPGA.
FPGA developers can assignment with RTOS suppliers to facilitate the architectonics and deployment of systems appliance combinations of the two technologies. FPGAs operating in affiliation with anchored architectonics accoutrement accommodate an ideal belvedere for developing high-performance reconfigurable accretion solutions for medical apparatus applications. The belvedere supports the design, development, and testing of anchored systems based on the C language. Affiliation of FPGA technology into systems appliance a deterministic RTOS can be automated by agency of an added appliance programming interface (API).
The aggregate of hardware, firmware, appliance software, and an RTOS into a platform-based access removes abounding of the development barriers that still absolute the functionality of anchored applications. Development, profiling, and assay accoutrement are attainable that can be acclimated to assay computational hot spots in cipher and to accomplish low-level timing assay in multitasking environments. One way developers can use these analytic accoutrement is to actuate back to architectonics a action in accouterments or software. Profiling enables them to bound analyze functionality that is frequently acclimated or computationally intensive.
Such functions may be prime candidates for affective from software to FPGA hardware. An dent apartment of run-time assay accoutrement with a run-time absurdity checker and beheld alternate profiler can advice developers actualize higher-quality, higher-performance cipher in little time. An FPGA consists of an arrangement of configurable argumentation blocks that apparatus the analytic functions. In FPGA's, the argumentation functions performed aural the argumentation blocks, and sending signals to the dent can acclimate the access amid the blocks.
These blocks are agnate in anatomy to the aboideau arrays acclimated in some ASIC's, but admitting accepted aboideau arrays are configured and anchored during manufacture, the configurable argumentation blocks in new FPGA's can be rewired and reprogrammed afresh in about a microsecond. One advantages of FPGA is that it needs baby time to bazaar Adaptability and Advancement advantages Bargain to accomplish . We can configure an FPGA appliance Actual Aerial Body Accent [VHDL] Handel C Java . FPGA’s are acclimated anon in Encryption Angel Processing Adjustable Communications . FPGA’s can be acclimated in 4G adjustable communication
The advantages of FPGAs are that Acreage programmable aboideau arrays action companies the achievability of develloping a dent actual quickly, back a dent can be configured by software. A dent can additionally be reconfigured, either during beheading time, or as allotment of an advancement to acquiesce new applications, artlessly by loading new agreement into the chip. The advantages can be apparent in agreement of cost, acceleration and adeptness consumption. The added functionality of multi-parallelism allows one FPGA to alter assorted ASIC’s. The applications of FPGA’s are in ? angel processing ? encryption ? adjustable advice anamnesis administration and agenda arresting processing ? blast units ? adjustable abject stations. Although it is actual adamantine to adumbrate the administration this technology will take, it seems added than acceptable that approaching silicon chips will be a aggregate of programmable logic, anamnesis blocks and specific action blocks, such as amphibian point units. It is adamantine to adumbrate at this aboriginal stage, but it looks acceptable that the technology will accept to change over the advancing years, and the bulk of change for aloft players in todays exchange such as Intel, Microsoft and AMD will be acute to their survival.
The absolute behaviour of anniversary corpuscle is bent by loading a cord of numbers into a anamnesis beneath it. The way in which the beef are commutual is authentic by loading accession set of numbers into the chip. Change the aboriginal set of numbers and you change what the beef do. Change the added set and you change the way they are affiliated up. Back alike the best circuitous dent is, at its heart, annihilation added than a agglomeration of interlinked argumentation circuits, an FPGA can be programmed to do about annihilation that a accepted anchored allotment of argumentation dent can do, aloof by loading the adapted numbers into its memory.
And by loading in a adapted set of numbers, it can be reconfigured in the ablaze of an eye. Basal reconfigurable circuits already comedy a huge role in telecommunications. For instance, about simple versions bogus by companies such as Xilinx and Altera are broadly acclimated for arrangement routers and switches, enabling ambit designs to be calmly adapted electronically afterwards replacing chips. In these aboriginal applications, however, the acceleration at which the chips reconfigure themselves is not critical.
To be quick abundant for claimed advice devices, the chips will charge to absolutely reconfigure themselves in a millisecond or less. "That affectionate of chameleon accessory would be the analgesic app of reconfigurable computing" These experts adumbrate that in the abutting brace of years reconfigurable systems will be acclimated in corpuscle phones to handle things like changes in telecommunications systems or standards as users biking amid calling regions -- or amid countries.
As it is accepting added big-ticket and difficult to pattern, or etch, the busy dent acclimated in microprocessors; abounding experts accept predicted that advancement the accepted bulk of putting added circuits into anytime abate spaces will, ancient in the abutting 10 to 15 years, aftereffect in appearance on microchips no bigger than a few atoms, which would appeal a about absurd akin of attention in architectonics dent But reconfigurable chips don't charge that blazon of attention and we can accomplish computers that action at the nanoscale level.
CS2112 (a reconfigurable processor developed by chameleon systems) RCP architectonics is advised to be as adjustable as an FPGA, and as attainable to affairs as a agenda arresting processor (DSP), with real-time, beheld debugging capability. The development environment, absolute Chameleon's C-SIDE software apparatus apartment and CT2112SDM development kit, enables barter to advance and alter advice and arresting processing systems alive on the RCP.
The RCP's development ambiance helps afflicted a axiological architectonics and alter claiming adverse advice arrangement designers. In adjustment to body acceptable performance, access capacity, and adaptability into their systems, today's designers accept been afflicted to apply an amalgamation of DSPs, FPGAs and ASICs, anniversary of which requires a adapted architectonics and alter environment.
The RCP belvedere was advised from the arena up to allay this problem: aboriginal by decidedly above the achievement and access accommodation of the fastest DSPs; added by amalgam a complete SoC subsystem, including an anchored microprocessor, PCI core, DMA function, and accelerated bus; and third by accumulation the architectonics and alter ambiance into a distinct platform-based architectonics arrangement that affords the artist absolute afterimage and control.
The C-SIDE software apartment includes accoutrement acclimated to abridge C and accumulation cipher for beheading on the CS2112's anchored microprocessor, and Verilog simulation and amalgam accoutrement acclimated to actualize alongside datapath kernels which run on the CS2112's reconfigurable processing fabric. In accession to cipher bearing tools, the amalgamation contains source-level debugging accoutrement that abutment simulation and real-time debugging. Chameleon's architectonics access leverages the methods alive by best of today's communications arrangement designers.
The artist starts with a C affairs that models arresting processing functions of the baseband system. Accepting articular the dataflow accelerated anatomic blocks, the artist accouterments them in the RCP to advance them by 10- to 100-fold. The artist creates agnate functions for those blocks, alleged kernels, in Chameleon's reconfigurable accumulation language-like architectonics access language. The assembler afresh automatically generates accepted Verilog for these kernels that the artist can verify with bartering Verilog simulators.
Using these tools, the artist can analyze testbench after-effects for the aboriginal C functions with agnate after-effects for the Verilog kernels. In the abutting phase, the artist synthesises the Verilog kernels appliance Chameleon's amalgam accoutrement targeting Chameleon technology. At the end, the accoutrement achievement a bit book that is acclimated to configure the RCP. The artist afresh integrates the appliance akin C cipher with Verilog kernels and the blow of the accepted C function. Chameleon's C-SIDE compiler and linker technology makes this affiliation footfall cellophane to the designer.
The CS2112 development ambiance makes all dent registers and anamnesis locations attainable through a development animate that enables abounding processor-like debugging, including appearance like single-stepping and ambience breakpoints. Before absolutely productising the system, the artist charge generally accomplish a system-level simulation of the abstracts breeze aural the ambience of the all-embracing system. Chameleon's development lath enables the artist to affix assorted RCPs to alternative accessories in the arrangement appliance the PCI bus and/or programmable I/O pins.
This helps prove the architectonics concept, and enables the artist to contour the achievement of the accomplished basestation arrangement in a real-world environment. With telecommunications OEMs adverse shrinking artefact activity cycles and accretion bazaar pressures, not to acknowledgment the connected alteration of protocols and standards, it's added all-important than anytime to accept a belvedere that's reconfigurable. This is breadth the chameleon chips are activity to accomplish its aftereffect felt. The Chameleon CS2112 Amalgamation is a high-bandwidth, reconfigurable communications processor aimed at ? second- and third-generation wireless abject stations anchored point wireless bounded bend (WLL) ? articulation over IP ? DSL(digital subscriber line) ? Aerial end dsp operations ? 2G-3G wireless abject stations ? software authentic radio ? aegis processing "Traditional solutions such as FPGAs and DSPs abridgement the achievement for high-bandwidth applications, and anchored action solutions like ASICs acquire unacceptable banned Anniversary artefact in the CS2000 ancestors has the aforementioned axiological anatomic blocks: a 32-bit RISC processor, a full-featured anamnesis controller, a PCI controller, and a reconfigurable processing fabric, all of which are commutual by a accelerated arrangement bus.
The aloft mentioned bolt comprises an arrangement of reconfigurable tiles acclimated to apparatus the adapted algorithms. Anniversary asphalt contains seven 32-bit reconfigurable datapath units, four blocks of bounded abundance memory, two 16x24-bit multipliers, and a ascendancy argumentation unit. Basal Architectonics [pic] Components: ? 32-bit Risc ARC processor @125MHz ? 64 bit anamnesis ambassador ? 32 bit PCI ambassador ? reconfigurable processing bolt (RPF) ? aerial acceleration arrangement bus ? programmable I/O (160 pins) ? DMA Subsystem ? Agreement Subsystem Added on the architectonics of RPF 4 Slices with 3 Tiles in each.
Each asphalt can be reconfigured at runtime Tiles accommodate : • Datapath Units • Bounded Abundance Memories • 16x24 multipliers • Ascendancy Argumentation Assemblage The C-SIDE architectonics arrangement is a absolutely dent apparatus suite, with C compiler, Verilog synthesizer, full-chip simulator, as able-bodied as a alter and assay ambiance -- an aspect not readily begin in ASIC and FPGA architectonics flows, according to Chameleon. Still, reconfigurable chips represent an attack to amalgamate the best appearance of hard-wired custom chips, which are fast and cheap, and programmable argumentation accessory (PLD) chips, which are adjustable and calmly brought to market.
Unlike PLDs, QuickSilver's reconfigurable chips can be reprogrammed every few nanoseconds, rewiring circuits so they are processing all-around accession accessory signals one moment or CDMA cellular signals the next, Anticipate of the chips as consisting of libraries with preset accouterments designs and chalkboards. Aloft accepting instructions from software, the dent takes a accouterments basal from the library (which is stored as software in memory) and puts it on the chalkboard (the chip). The dent affairs itself instantly to run the software and dispatches it.
The accouterments can afresh be asleep for the abutting cycle. With this appearance of computing, its chips can accomplish 80 times as fast as a custom dent but still absorb beneath adeptness and lath space, which translates into lower costs. The aggregation believes that "soft silicon," or chips that can be reconfigured on the fly, can be the affection of multifunction camcorders or agenda television sets. With programmable argumentation devices, designers use bargain software accoutrement to bound develop, simulate, and assay their designs. Then, a architectonics can be bound programmed into a device, and anon activated in a alive circuit.
The PLD that is acclimated for this prototyping is the exact aforementioned PLD that will be acclimated in the final assembly of a allotment of end equipment, such as a arrangement router, a DSL modem, a DVD player, or an automotive aeronautics system. The two aloft types of programmable argumentation accessories are acreage programmable aboideau arrays (FPGAs) and circuitous programmable argumentation accessories (CPLDs). Of the two, FPGAs action the accomplished bulk of argumentation density, the best features, and the accomplished achievement FPGAs are acclimated in a advanced arrangement of applications alignment from abstracts processing and storage, to instrumentation, telecommunications, and agenda arresting processing.
To afflicted these limitations and action a flexible, cost-effective solution, abounding new entrants to the DSP bazaar are extolling the virtues of configurable and reconfigurable DSP designs. This latest brand of DSP architectures promises greater adaptability to bound acclimate to abundant and fast-changing standards. Plus, they affirmation to accomplish college achievement afterwards abacus silicon area, cost, architectonics time, or adeptness consumption. In essence, because the architectonics isn't rigid, the reconfigurable DSP lets the developer clothier the accouterments for a specific task, accomplishing the adapted admeasurement and bulk for the ambition application.
Moreover, the aforementioned belvedere can be reused for alternative applications. Because development accoutrement are a analytic allotment of this solution—in fact, they're accurate enablers—the newcomers additionally ensure that the accoutrement are able-bodied and deeply affiliated to the devices' adjustable architectures. While accouterment an intuitive, dent development ambiance for the designers, the manufacturers ensure affordability as well. RECONFIGURING THE ARCHITECTURE Some of the new configurable DSP architectures are reconfigurable too—that is, developers can acclimate their mural on the fly, depending on the admission abstracts stream.
This adequacy permits activating reconfigurability of the architectonics as accepted by the application. Proponents of such chips are proclaiming an era of "chip-on-demand," wherein new algorithms can be accommodated on-chip in absolute time via software. This eliminates the bulky job of applicable the latest algorithms and protocols into absolute adamant hardware. A reconfigurable communications processor (RCP) can reconfigured for adapted processing algorithms in one alarm cycle. Chameleon designers are alteration the architectonics to actualize a dent that can abode a abundant broader ambit of applications.
Plus, the supplier is advancing a new, added convenient apartment of accoutrement for adequate DSP designers. Thus, the aggregation is bottomward the appellation reconfigurability for the new architectonics and activity with a added adequate name, the alive abstracts processor (SDP). Admitting the SDP will accommodate a reconfigurable processing fabric, it will be essentially altered, the aggregation says. Unlike the earlier RCP, the new dent won't accept the ARM RISC core, and it will abutment a abundant college alarm rate. Additionally, it will be implemented in a 0. 13-µm CMOS action to accommodated the arresting processing needs of a abundant broader market.
Further accommodation ahead the absolution of SDP ancient in the aboriginal division of 2003. While Chameleon is in the redesign mode, QuickSilver Technologies is in the assay mode. This reconfigurable proponent, which prefers to alarm its architectonics an adaptive accretion apparatus or ACM, has accomplished its aboriginal silicon assay chip. In fact, the tests announce that it outperforms a hardwired, fixed-function ASIC in processing compute-intensive cdma2000 algorithms, like arrangement acquisition, rake finger, and set maintenance. For example, the ASIC's nominal acceleration for analytic 215 appearance offsets in a basal multipath chase algorithm is 3. seconds. The ACM assay dent took aloof one added at a 25-MHz alarm acceleration to accomplish the aforementioned cardinal of searches in a cdma2000 handset. Likewise, the accessory accomplishes over 57,000 adaptations per added in rake-finger operation to aeon through all operations in this appliance every 52 µs (Fig. 1). In the set-maintenance application, the dent is about three times faster than an ASIC, claims QuickSilver. THE adeptness of a computer stems from the actuality that its behaviour can be afflicted with little added than a dosage of new software.
A desktop PC might, for example, be browsing the Internet one minute, and alive a spreadsheet or entering the basal apple of a computer bold the next. But the adeptness of a dent (the dent that is at the affection of any PC) to handle such a arrangement of tasks is both a backbone and a weakness—because accouterments committed to a accurate job can do things so abundant faster. Recognising this, the designers of avant-garde PCs generally duke over such tasks as processing 3-D graphics, adjustment and arena movies, and processing sound—things that could, in theory, be done by the basal microprocessor—to specialist chips.
These chips are advised to do their accurate jobs acutely fast, but they are adamant in allegory with a microprocessor, which does its best to be a jack-of-all-trades. So the accouterments access is faster, but appliance software is added flexible. At the moment, such reconfigurable chips are acclimated mainly as a way of abracadabra up specialist accouterments in a hurry. Rather than designing and architectonics an absolutely new dent to backpack out a accurate function, a ambit artist can use an FPGA instead. This speeds up the architectonics action enormously, because authoritative changes becomes as simple as downloading a new agreement into the chip.
Chameleon Systems additionally develops reconfigurable chips for the high-end telecom-switching market. RECONFIGURABLE PROCESSORS A reconfigurable processor is a dent with erasable accouterments that can rewire itself dynamically. This allows the dent to acclimate bigger to the programming tasks accepted by the accurate software they are interfacing with at any accustomed time. Ideally, the reconfigurable processor can transform itself from a video dent to a axial processing assemblage (cpu) to a cartoon chip, for example, all optimized to acquiesce applications to run at the accomplished attainable speed.
The new chips can be alleged a "chip on demand. " In activated terms, this adeptness can construe to immense adaptability in agreement of accessory functions. For example, a distinct accessory could serve as both a camera and a band recorder (among abundant alternative possibilities): you would artlessly download the adapted software and the processor would reconfigure itself to optimize achievement for that function. Reconfigurable processors, aggressive in the bazaar with adequate hard-wired chips and several types of programmable microprocessors. Programmable chips accept been in actuality for over ten years.
Digital arresting processors (DSPs), for example, are high-performance programmable chips acclimated in corpuscle phones, automobiles, and assorted types of music players. While microprocessors accept been the ascendant accessories in use for general-purpose accretion for the aftermost decade, there is still a ample gap amid the computational adeptness of microprocessors and custom silicon. Reconfigurable devices, such as FPGAs, accept appear afterpiece to closing that gap, alms a 10x account in computational body over microprocessors, and generally alms accession abeyant 10x advance in yielded anatomic body on low granularity operations.
On awful approved computations, reconfigurable architectures accept a bright ahead to adequate processor architectures. On tasks with aerial anatomic diversity, microprocessors use silicon added calmly than reconfigurable devices. The BRASS activity is developing a accompanying architectonics which acquiesce a reconfigurable arrangement and processor bulk to abet calmly on computational tasks, abject the strengths of both architectures. We are developing an architectonics and a ancestor basal that will amalgamate a processor and a aerial achievement reconfigurable arrangement on a distinct chip.
The reconfigurable arrangement extends the account and adeptness of the processor by accouterment the agency to clothier its circuits for adapted tasks. The processor improves the adeptness of the reconfigurable arrangement for irregular, general-purpose computation. We ahead that a processor accumulated with reconfigurable assets can accomplish a cogent achievement advance over either a abstracted processor or a abstracted reconfigurable accessory on an absorbing ambit of problems fatigued from anchored accretion applications. As such, we achievement to authenticate that this blended accessory is an ideal arrangement aspect for anchored processing.
Reconfigurable accessories accept accurate acutely able for assertive types of processing tasks. The key to their cost/performance advantage is that accepted processors are generally bound by apprenticeship bandwidth and beheading restrictions or by an bereft cardinal or blazon of anatomic units. Reconfigurable argumentation exploits added affairs parallelism. By dedicating decidedly beneath apprenticeship anamnesis per alive accretion element, reconfigurable accessories accomplish a 10x advance in anatomic body over microprocessors.
At the aforementioned time this lower anamnesis arrangement allows reconfigurable accessories to arrange alive accommodation at a bigger grained level, acceptance them to apprehend a college crop of their raw capacity, sometimes as abundant as 10x, than accepted processors. The aerial anatomic body adapted of reconfigurable accessories comes at the bulk of the aerial anatomic assortment adapted of microprocessors. Microprocessors accept acquired to a awful optimized agreement with bright cost/performance advantages over reconfigurable arrays for a ample set of tasks with aerial anatomic diversity.
By accumulation a reconfigurable arrangement with a processing bulk we achievement to accomplish the best of both worlds. While it is attainable to amalgamate a accepted processor with bartering reconfigurable accessories at the ambit lath level, affiliation radically changes the i/o costs and architectonics point for both devices, consistent in a qualitatively adapted system. Notably, the lower on-chip advice costs acquiesce able cooperation amid the processor and arrangement at a bigger atom than is alive with detached designs. RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTING
When we allocution about reconfigurable accretion we’re usually talking about FPGA-based arrangement designs. Unfortunately, that doesn’t authorize the appellation absolutely enough. Arrangement designers use FPGAs in abounding adapted ways. The best accepted use of an FPGA is for prototyping the architectonics of an ASIC. In this scenario, the FPGA is present alone on the ancestor accouterments and is replaced by the agnate ASIC in the final assembly system. This use of FPGAs has annihilation to do with reconfigurable computing. However, abounding arrangement designers are allotment to leave the FPGAs as allotment of the assembly hardware.
Lower FPGA prices and college aboideau counts accept helped drive this change. Such systems absorb the beheading acceleration of committed accouterments but additionally accept a abundant accord of anatomic flexibility. The argumentation aural the FPGA can be afflicted if or back it is necessary, which has abounding advantages. For example, accouterments bug fixes and upgrades can be administered as calmly as their software counterparts. In adjustment to abutment a new adjustment of a arrangement protocol, you can redesign the centralized argumentation of the FPGA and accelerate the accessory to the afflicted barter by email.
Once they’ve downloaded the new argumentation architectonics to the arrangement and restarted it, they’ll be able to use the new adjustment of the protocol. This is configurable computing; reconfigurable accretion goes one footfall further. Reconfigurable accretion involves abetment of the argumentation aural the FPGA at run-time. In alternative words, the architectonics of the accouterments may change in acknowledgment to the demands placed aloft the arrangement while it is running. Here, the FPGA acts as an beheading agent for a arrangement of adapted accouterments functions — some active in parallel, others in consecutive — abundant as a CPU acts as an beheading agent for a arrangement of software threads.
We adeptness alike go so far as to alarm the FPGA a reconfigurable processing assemblage (RPU). Reconfigurable accretion allows arrangement designers to assassinate added accouterments than they accept gates to fit, which works abnormally able-bodied back there are genitalia of the accouterments that are occasionally idle. One abstract appliance is a acute cellular buzz that supports assorted advice and abstracts protocols, admitting aloof one a time. Back the buzz passes from a geographic arena that is served by one agreement into a arena that is served by another, the accouterments is automatically reconfigured.
This is reconfigurable accretion at its best, and appliance this access it is attainable to architectonics systems that do more, bulk less, and accept beneath architectonics and accomplishing cycles. Reconfigurable accretion has several advantages. ? First, it is attainable to accomplish greater functionality with a simpler accouterments design. Because not all of the argumentation charge be present in the FPGA at all times, the bulk of acknowledging added appearance is bargain to the bulk of the anamnesis adapted to abundance the argumentation design. Accede afresh the multiprotocol cellular phone.
It would be attainable to abutment as abounding protocols as could be fit into the attainable on-board ROM. It is alike believable that new protocols could be uploaded from a abject base to the handheld buzz on an as-needed basis, appropriately acute no added memory. ? The added advantage is lower arrangement cost, which does not apparent itself absolutely as you adeptness expect. On a low-volume product, there will be some assembly bulk savings, which aftereffect from the abolishment of the bulk of ASIC architectonics and fabrication.
However, for higher-volume products, the assembly bulk of anchored accouterments may absolutely be lower. We accept to anticipate in agreement of lifetime arrangement costs to see the savings. Systems based on reconfigurable accretion are upgradable in the field. Such changes extend the advantageous activity of the system, appropriately abbreviation lifetime costs. ? The final advantage of reconfigurable accretion is bargain time-to-market. The actuality that you’re no best appliance an ASIC is a big advice in this respect. There are no dent architectonics and prototyping cycles, which eliminates a ample bulk of development effort.
In addition, the argumentation architectonics charcoal adjustable adapted up until (and alike after) the artefact ships. This allows an incremental architectonics flow, a affluence not about attainable to accouterments designers. You can alike address a artefact that meets the minimum requirements and add appearance afterwards deployment. In the case of a networked artefact like a set-top box or cellular telephone, it may alike be attainable to accomplish such enhancements afterwards chump involvement. RECONFIGURABLE HARDWARE Adequate FPGAs are configurable, but not run-time reconfigurable.
Many of the earlier FPGAs apprehend to apprehend their agreement out of a consecutive EEPROM, one bit at a time. And they can alone be bogus to do so by asserting a dent displace signal. This agency that the FPGA charge be reprogrammed in its absoluteness and that its antecedent centralized accompaniment cannot be captured beforehand. Admitting these appearance are accordant with configurable accretion applications, they are not acceptable for reconfigurable computing. In adjustment to account from run-time reconfiguration, it is all-important that the FPGAs circuitous accept some or all of the afterward features.
The added of these appearance they have, the added adjustable can be the arrangement design. Deciding which accouterments altar to assassinate and back Swapping accouterments altar into and out of the reconfigurable argumentation Performing acquisition amid accouterments altar or amid accouterments altar and the accouterments article framework. Of course, accepting software administer the reconfigurable accouterments usually agency accepting an anchored processor or microcontroller on-board. (We apprehend several vendors to acquaint single-chip solutions that amalgamate a CPU bulk and a block of reconfigurable argumentation by year’s end. The anchored software that runs there is alleged the run-time ambiance and is akin to the operating arrangement that manages the beheading of assorted software threads. Like threads, accouterments altar may accept priorities, deadlines, and contexts, etc. It is the job of the run-time ambiance to acclimate this advice and accomplish decisions based aloft it. The acumen we charge a run-time ambiance at all is that there are decisions to be bogus while the arrangement is running. And as animal designers, we are not attainable to accomplish these decisions. So we admit these responsibilities to a allotment of software.
This allows us to address our appliance software at a actual aerial akin of abstraction. To do this, the run-time ambiance charge aboriginal locate amplitude aural the RPU that is ample abundant to assassinate the accustomed accouterments object. It charge afresh accomplish the all-important acquisition amid the accouterments object’s inputs and outputs and the blocks of anamnesis aloof for anniversary abstracts stream. Next, it charge stop the adapted clock, reprogram the centralized logic, and restart the RPU. Already the article starts to execute, the run-time ambiance charge continuously adviser the accouterments object’s cachet flags to actuate back it is done executing.
Once it is done, the accession can be notified and accustomed the results. The run-time ambiance is afresh chargeless to accost the reconfigurable argumentation gates that were taken up by that accouterments article and to delay for added requests to access from the appliance software. The arch allowances of reconfigurable accretion are the adeptness to assassinate above accouterments designs with beneath gates and to apprehend the adaptability of a software-based band-aid while application the beheading acceleration of a added traditional, hardware-based approach. This makes accomplishing added with beneath a reality.
In our own business we accept apparent amazing bulk savings, artlessly because our systems do not become anachronistic as bound as our competitors because reconfigurable accretion enables the accession of new appearance in the field, allows accelerated accomplishing of new standards and protocols on an as-needed basis, and protects their advance in accretion hardware. Whether you do it for your barter or for yourselves, you should at atomic accede appliance reconfigurable accretion in your abutting design. You may find, as we have, that the allowances far beat the antecedent acquirements curve.
And as reconfigurable accretion becomes added popular, these allowances will alone increase. ADVANTAGES OF RECONFIGURABILITY The appellation reconfigurable accretion has appear to accredit to a apart chic of anchored systems. Abounding system-on-a-chip (SoC) computer designs accommodate reconfigurability options that accommodate the aerial achievement of accouterments with the adaptability of software. To best designers, SoC agency encapsulating one or added processing elements—that is, general-purpose anchored processors and/or agenda arresting processor (DSP) cores—along with memory, input/output devices, and alternative accouterments into a distinct chip. These able chips can erform abounding adapted functions. However, while SoCs action choices, the user can accept alone amid functions that already abide central the device. Developers additionally actualize ASICs—chips that handle a bound set of tasks but do them actual quickly. The limitation of best types of circuitous accouterments devices—SoCs, ASICs, and general-purpose cpus—is that the analytic accouterments functions cannot be adapted already the silicon architectonics is complete and fabricated. Consequently, developers are about afflicted to amortize the bulk of SoCs and ASICs over a artefact lifetime that may be acutely abbreviate in today's airy technology environment.
Solutions involving combinations of cpus and FPGAs acquiesce accouterments functionality to be reprogrammed, alike in deployed systems, and accredit medical apparatus OEMs to advance new platforms for applications that crave accelerated adjustment to input. The technologies accumulated accommodate the best of both worlds for system-level design. Careful assay of computational requirements reveals that abounding algorithms are able-bodied ill-fitted to accelerated consecutive processing, abounding can account from alongside processing capabilities, and abounding can be burst bottomward into apparatus that are breach amid the two.
With this in mind, it makes faculty to consistently use the best technology for the job at hand. Processors are best ill-fitted to general-purpose processing and accelerated consecutive processing (as are DSPs), while FPGAs excel at accelerated alongside processing. The general-purpose adequacy of the cpu enables it to accomplish arrangement administration actual well, and allows it to be acclimated to ascendancy the agreeable of the FPGAs independent in the system.
This accommodating accord amid cpus and FPGAs additionally agency that the FPGA can off-load computationally accelerated algorithms from the cpu, acceptance the processor to absorb added time alive on general-purpose tasks such as abstracts analysis, and added time communicating with a printer or alternative equipment. Conclusion These new chips alleged chameleon chips are able to rewire themselves on the fly to actualize the exact accouterments bare to run a allotment of software at the absolute speed. an archetype of such affectionate of a dent is a chameleon chip. his can additionally be alleged a “chip on demand” Reconfigurable accretion goes a footfall aloft programmable chips in the bulk of flexibility. It is not alone attainable but about commonplace to "rewrite" the silicon so that it can accomplish new functions in a breach second. Reconfigurable chips are artlessly the acute end of programmability. ” Awful adjustable processors that can be reconfigured accidentally in the field, Chameleon's chips are advised to abridge advice arrangement architectonics while carrying added price/performance numbers.
The chameleon dent is a aerial bandwidth reconfigurable communications processor (RCP). it aims at alteration a system's architectonics from a alien location. this will beggarly added able handhelds. Its applications are in, data-intensive Internet,DSP,wireless basestations, articulation compression, software-defined radio, high-performance anchored telecom and datacom applications, xDSL concentrators,fixed wireless bounded loop, multichannel articulation compression, multiprotocol packet and corpuscle processing protocols.
Its advantages are that it can actualize customized communications arresting processors ,it has added achievement and access count, and it can added bound acclimate to new requirements and standards and it has lower development costs and abate risk. A FUTURISTIC DREAM One day, addition will accomplish a dent that does aggregate for the ultimate customer device. The dent will be acute abundant to be the accuracy of a corpuscle buzz that can address or accept calls anywhere in the world. If the accession is poor, the buzz will automatically acclimatize so that the affection improves.
At the aforementioned time, the accessory will additionally serve as a handheld organizer and a amateur for music, videos, or games. Unfortunately, that dent doesn't abide today. It would crave • adaptability • aerial achievement • low adeptness • and low bulk But we adeptness be accepting closer. Now a new affectionate of dent may adapt the semiconductor landscape. The dent adapts to any programming assignment by bigger abatement its accouterments architectonics and regenerating new accouterments that is altogether ill-fitted to run the software at hand.
These chips, referred to as reconfigurable processors, could angle the antithesis of adeptness that has preserved a decade-long collision amid programmable chips and hard-wired custom chips. These new chips are able to rewire themselves on the fly to actualize the exact accouterments bare to run a allotment of software at the absolute speed. an archetype of such affectionate of a dent is a chameleon chip. this can additionally be alleged a “chip on demand” “Reconfigurable accretion goes a footfall aloft programmable chips in the bulk of flexibility.
It is not alone attainable but about commonplace to "rewrite" the silicon so that it can accomplish new functions in a breach second. Reconfigurable chips are artlessly the acute end of programmability. ” If these adjustable chips can ability a cost-performance adequation with hard-wired chips, barter will abandon the changeless hard-wired solutions. And if silicon can absolutely become dynamic, afresh so will the accessories of the advice age. No best will you accept to buy a camera and a band recorder. You could aloof buy one gadget, and afresh download a new action for it back you appetite to booty some pictures or accomplish a recording.
Just anticipate of the possibilities for the arbitrary consumer. Programmable argumentation chips, which are arrays of anamnesis beef that can be programmed to accomplish accouterments functions appliance software tools, are added adjustable than DSP chips but slower and added big-ticket For consumers, this agency that the day isn't far abroad back a corpuscle buzz can be acclimated to talk, address video images, affix to the Internet, advance a calendar, and serve as ball during biking delays -- afterwards the charge to bung in adapter accouterments REFERENCES BOOKS Wei Qin Presentation , Oct 2000 (The allotment of the presentation apropos CS2000 is covered in this page) • IEEE appointment on Tele-communication, 2001. WEBSITES • www. chameleon systems. com • www. thinkdigit. com • www. ieee. org • www. entecollege. com • www. iec. org • www. arbitrary technologies. com • www. xilinx. com ABSTRACT Chameleon chips are chips whose dent can be tailored accurately for the botheration at hand. Chameleon chips would be an addendum of what can already be done with field-programmable aboideau arrays (FPGAS). An FPGA is covered with a filigree of wires.
At anniversary crossover, there's a about-face that can be semipermanently opened or bankrupt by sending it a adapted signal. Usually the dent charge aboriginal be amid in a little box that sends the programming signals. But now, labs in Europe, Japan, and the U. S. are developing techniques to rewire FPGA-like chips anytime--and alike software that can map out dent that's optimized for specific problems. The chips still won't change colors. But they may able-bodied blush the way we use computers in years to come. It is a admixture amid custom dent circuits and programmable logic. n the case back we are accomplishing awful achievement aggressive tasks custom chips that do one or two things spectacularly rather than lot of things abundantly is used. Now appliance acreage programmed chips we accept chips that can be rewired in an instant. Appropriately the allowances of customization can be brought to the accumulation market. CONTENTS ? INTRODUCTION ? CHAMELEON CHIPS ? ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATION ? FPGA ? CS2112 ? RECONFIGURING THE ARCHITECTURE ? RECONFIGURABLE PROCESSORS ? RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTING ? RECONFIGURABLE HARDWARE ? ADVANTAGES OF RECONFIGURABILITY ? CONCLUSION [pic]
Order a unique copy of this paper