CAUSES OF DROPOUT AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN F.R. PESHAWAR

This abstraction aimed to seek the account of macho students’ dropout at primary akin of F.R. Peshawar. The capital objectives of the abstraction were. (a) to abstraction the abecedary problems and attitude about dropout, (b) to actuate the factors which account dropout (c) to abstraction the Govt. action about dropout and (d) to accommodate advancement to affected this botheration and advance articulacy rate.

For allotment the simple accidental sampling address was used. The advisers was called the ten (10) schools of F.R. Peshawar Asho khel. The assay Abstraction was anecdotic in nature. Three blazon of check were able one for teacher, additional for acceptance and third for parents, afterwards that researcher were calm abstracts again tabulated, analyzed and interpreted in the allotment method.

On the base of assay it was assured that majority of agents beheld that agents were amenable for dropout, because of anatomical punishment, poor absorption appear the students. Majority of the acceptance opined that acceptance themselves are amenable for dropout, because abhorrence of teachers; abortion in examination, brainy weaknesses and acceptance anemic in algebraic and English Majority of the parents beheld that parents are amenable for dropout of their accouchement because of their poverty, illiteracy, blindness of accent of education;

Following recommendations were fabricated for the advance of the teaching-learning bearings in the primary apprenticeship institutions. Agents should appearance fair attitude and able-bodied behave. The government should accredit the accomplished abecedary and bounded agents of the area. Agents may advance and accommodate array of approaches of action techniques in altered teaching situation. Government should accommodate abounding absorption to their apprenticeship arrangement by provides banking abutment to the poor acceptance in anatomy of scholarship and additionally government should facilitate the agents and access their salary.

Keywords: Causes of Dropout, Primary level, Government schools, Teachers; Students, Parents.

INTRODUCTION

Education is a charge of every society. The association uses academy as its agents of socialization. Pakistan still abaft in the race/ run of education. Pakistan could not advance his articulacy rate. Pakistan has one of the everyman articulacy ante amid the Asian countries (Farooq, 2001). Our educational arrangement of primary and accessory levels is actual aerial allotment of acceptance who dropout afore complete a accurate cycle. Pakistan is advised additional everyman country amid those advised whose acceptance complete primary education. Aerial dropouts mark all levels of primary education. A adequately ample cardinal of enrolled acceptance at primary apprenticeship never complete the aeon of their apprenticeship (Rauf, 1996).

According to Aggrwal (2000) Apprenticeship is a bend bean of development. It has been accepted that apprenticeship makes a cogent and position appulse on employment, earning, abundance bloom and the ascendancy over citizenry advance there are amid causes of lower articulacy rate. Every government fabricated his efforts to advance articulacy amount but failed. Theses causes as under.

Poverty, educational facilities, abridgement of funding, curriculum, unskilled teachers, belief for admission, adjustment of teaching, apprenticeship system, corruption, alternation of government, bifold arrangement of apprenticeship and political ambiance etc. It is not a big botheration of Pakistan but additionally a botheration of arrested countries (Sultana 1998).According to civic apprenticeship action (1998-2010), “the accepted articulacy amount of about 39% will be aloft to 55% during the aboriginal bristles years of the action and 70 % by the year 2010.

Literacy abstracts which acutely stands accustomed about 38.9% is arguable government of Pakistan declares that we accept added 12.2% articulacy amount from 1981 to 1998. What is alike added arguable is the admeasurement use to affection a being as community one acute the analogue holds that a being who can address his name is community (Mahmooda, 1999).

According to civic action (1998) Apprenticeship is a able catalyzing abettor which provides mental, physical, brainy and moral training to alone so as to accredit them to accept abounding alertness of there purpose in activity and accouter them to accomplish that purpose. It is an apparatus for the airy development as able-bodied as the actual accomplishment of animal needs (Shahid, 1999).

Elementary apprenticeship is the ancient affairs of education, alpha about at the age of bristles or six and abiding from six to eight years. The greatest cardinal of any country citizenry attends the primary stage. This date is the agency by which accepted able accouchement can be located. The elementary date produces the aggregate of accomplished and community workers and a avant-garde abstruse association can be developed and maintained alone back these accomplished and community workers are produced in a ample numbers and additionally regularly. This date is actual important abnormally in a autonomous society. A autonomous government requires that its aborigine should be able abundant to accept the manifestoes of several political parties to adapt account intelligently and alarmingly and to casting their vitas according to their own chargeless best and will (Rasool, 2000).

Statement of the Problem

The Statement of the Botheration of the abstraction was to acquisition out the causes of dropout at Primary akin (5th Class) at F.R. Peshawar (Male School) and accommodate advice and advancement and to abolish hurdles on the area.

Objectives of The study

The capital objectives of the abstraction were as follow.

To abstraction abecedary problems and attitudes about dropout.

To actuate the factors which account dropout.

Significance of The study

The Significance of the Abstraction is aerial dropouts mark all levels of primary and accessory education. A adequately ample cardinal of acceptance not complete there apprenticeship cycle. The abstraction has abundant cogent because that provides basal and absolute advice to abetment abecedary and educational authority. It provides basal advice to the chic artist to plan the chic according to the needs of agents and students. The abstraction provides advice for the chic artist to affected these causes.

Hypotheses of the study

The formulations of antecedent were abounding factors which accretion dropout amount at elementary level. The acceptance leave academy afterwards commutual their education. Therefore afterward assay antecedent occurred.

Students leave academy due to poverty.

Many acceptance leave academy due to adamantine and non adjustable curriculum.

Many acceptance leave academy due to anatomical punishment.

Delimitations of the study

Due to bound time and assets the abstraction was belted to ten (10) macho schools of F.R. Peshawar Asho Khel area.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

NATURE OF RESEARCH

It was analysis (descriptive) blazon of research. Advisers analysis the government schools of F.R. Peshawar and try to acquisition out the capital account of dropout at 5th class. The akin of dropout in the government schools in actual aerial that is why, the articulacy arrangement of the breadth is actual low. All primary/ elementary schools are in consideration, including 5th chic of F.R. Peshawar.

SAMPLING

As there are ample numbers of schools in F.R. Peshawar, but the advisers bound their studies to ten (10) called boys’ schools of F.R. Peshawar, which are amid in the breadth of Asho khel. As best of the schools are out of my ambit and it is difficult to ability there.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The afterward assay instruments were acclimated for accumulating of data.

Questionnaire-A for abecedary of government aerial academy (Male).

Questionnaire-B for parents.

Questionnaire-C for students.

.

DATA COLLECTION

The researcher or started abstracts accumulating action afterwards three or four canicule by visiting anniversary sampled academy and administering the check in person. The researcher recollected the check from the affair teachers, acceptance and parents. The acknowledgment amount was 100 percent.

DATA ANALYSIS

Then the researcher abiding the abstracts in analytical way and organized the abstracts in the anatomy of table. Afterwards the blueprint the researcher analyzed the data, and bidding in percentage.

RESULTS AND DISCUSION

The abstracts calm of ten (10) called schools of F.R. Peshawar, Asho Khel area, from teachers, acceptance and parents through questionnaires was tabulated, analyzed and declared here.

There were three questionnaires for anniversary teachers, acceptance and parents. Anniversary check was provided with alone two responses “YES” and “NO”. The questions of the check were archival to acquisition out the allotment of the causes of dropout. The researcher use simple and accessible techniques (Percentage, %) to abstraction the behavior and attitude of the respondents.

RESPONSES OF TEACHER, STUDENTS AND PARENTS

S.No

Statements

Responses

Yes

Percent

No

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Differences

1

No absolutely absorption of teacher

Teachers

14%

86%

100%

-71%

Students

23%

77%

100%

-54%

Parents

47%

53%

100%

-5%

2

Having a bad society

Teachers

95%

5%

100%

89%

Students

31%

69%

100%

-38%

Parents

93%

7%

100%

85%

3

Poverty of the parents

Teachers

79%

21%

100%

59%

Students

82%

18%

100%

64%

Parents

61%

39%

100%

22%

4

Oldest adjustment of teaching

Teachers

60%

40%

100%

20%

Students

38%

63%

100%

-25%

Parents

81%

19%

100%

62%

5

corporal punishment

Teachers

30%

70%

100%

-40%

Students

74%

26%

100%

48%

Parents

65%

35%

100%

30%

6

lack of facilities

Teachers

76%

24%

100%

52%

Students

61%

39%

100%

21%

Parents

68%

32%

100%

36%

Over all acknowledgment of teacher, acceptance and parents are acutely announce actuality that in the aboriginal account after-effects appearance that no absolutely absorption of the teacher, the aloft table announce that 14.28 % of the agents are accede with this abutment that “No absolutely absorption of abecedary “is the account of dropout, while in case of acceptance 85.71% do not accede to it, while apprentice 23.07 % acceptance accede and 76.92% do not agree, in case of parents 47.36% are accede while 52.63 % are not agree. The over all 25% agreed to it and 75 % did not agree. In adjustment of “having bad society”, it announce that 94.59% of the agents are accede that accepting bad society” is the account of dropout, in case of acceptance 5.40% do not accede to it, while acceptance 31.24% accede and 68.75% do not agree, in case of parents 92.59% agree, while 7.40% are not agree. The over all 81.25% accede to it and 18.75 % did not agree. The abjection of the parents draw the account that 79.41% of the agents accept that ” the abjection of parents” is the account of dropout, while 20.58% do not accede to it, while in case of acceptance 82.14 % acceptance are accede and 17.85 % are not agree, in case of parents 61.11 % agreed, while 38.88 % do not agree. The over all 76.85 % agreed to it and 23.75 % did not agree. The alignment of teaching is best important agency which affects the teaching. The after-effects shows that 60% of the agents are accede that ” the oldest adjustment of teaching” is the account of dropout, while 40 % do not accede to it, while in case of acceptance 37.50% acceptance are accede and 17.85 % are not agree, in case of parents 80.76 % agree, while 19.24 % do not agree. The over all 60 % agreed to it and 40 % did not agree. Anatomical abuse is the aloft account of bead out arrangement at primary level. It is bright from the aloft table that 30 % of the agents are accede to the anatomical abuse is the account of dropout, while 70 % are not accede to it. while in case of acceptance 74.07 % acceptance are accede and 25.92 % are not accordant to it. In case of parents 65.21 % are agree, while 34.79 % are not agree. The over all 55 % bodies are accordant to it and 45% are not agreeing. Moreover the abridgement of accessories is the key account of bead out arrangement at primary level, which can calmly adapt the abstracts in anatomy of that 76% of the agents are accede to the appearance about ” abridgement of facilities” is the account of dropout, while 24% are not accede to it while in case of acceptance 60.60 % acceptance are not accede to it and 39.40 % are not agree. In case of parents 68.18 % are accede to it, while 31.82 % are not agree. The over all 67.50 % bodies are accede to it and 32.50 % are not agree

CONCLUSIONS

After award the researcher fabricated the afterward cessation by abysmal study, about the macho student’s dropout at elementary akin (Male) in F.R. Peshawar.

The teachers, acceptance and parents were of the appearance that the botheration of dropout was due to

Majority of the agents beheld that agents were amenable for dropout, because of anatomical punishment, poor absorption appear the students. Unaware ness can account the dropout of the students.

Majority of the acceptance opined that acceptance themselves are amenable for dropout, because abhorrence of teachers; abortion in examination, brainy weaknesses and acceptance anemic in algebraic and English and over arena is a account of dropout.

Majority of the parents beheld that parents are amenable for dropout of their accouchement because of their poverty, illiteracy, blindness of accent of education; accepting no ancestor at home and no absolutely ascendancy on accouchement are the account of dropout, which is the albatross of parents.

RECOMMENDATIONS

After cessation the researcher fabricated the afterward advocacy for the advancement of acceptance of dropout at elementary akin at F.R. Peshawar Asho Khel. The recommendations are as under.

The abstraction after-effects appear that agents were amenable for dropout due to anatomical punishment. It is recommended that agents should appearance fair attitude and able-bodied behave. The government should accredit the accomplished abecedary and bounded agents of the area.

The abstraction after-effects showed that agents were amenable for dropout due to poor absorption appear the students. Therefore it is recommended that agents should accord absolutely absorption to the acceptance by accouterment incentives such as reward. . Agents may advance and accommodate array of approaches of action techniques in altered teaching situation.

The abstraction after-effects appear that acceptance were self-responsible for dropout due to account of abhorrence of teachers; abortion in examination, brainy weaknesses and acceptance anemic in algebraic and English. It is recommended that agents should accommodate acquaintance about apprenticeship to their acceptance by advance acceptance and confidence. Agents should accommodate peaceful atmosphere.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is alive as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Apprenticeship and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Apprenticeship from University Institute of Apprenticeship and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Ali Murtaza is alive as an Assistant Professor Preston University Islamabad, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Apprenticeship from University Institute of Apprenticeship and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: [email protected]

DrHafiz HameedUllah is alive as an Assistant Professor, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.. He did his Ph.D. in Apprenticeship from University Institute of Apprenticeship and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Sajjad Hayat Akhtar is alive as an agents Department of Education, Govt. of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Apprenticeship from University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan.

E-mail: [email protected]

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