Case Study: Psychological Case of Mark Spencer
The case of Mark Spencer involves the psychosocial bind accompanying to associate burden and the all-important arresting mechanisms, ancestors management, and action ordainment. Evidently, the antecedent appearance and cachet of Mark started in a absolute admirable atmosphere with accent on moral conduct and civic accepting of behavior and standards. Initially, the ambiance of Mark involves a socially arresting family, with adapted supervisions with parents, archetypal amount from his ancient brother, and the behavioral modifications through absolute reinforcements are actuality placed to him by the alien abutment systems. In such case, the arresting patterns, as able-bodied as the Mark’s angle over moral and ethical standards, acumen on appropriate and wrong, and acumen of constant to amusing standards and policies, are still bent intact. However, as the alien factors about Mark Spencer change, the psychosocial arresting patterns of Mark begins to adapt depending on the situations actuality active to him. The procedures of adorning cycle, such as role and appearance abashing adjoin articular identity, and the date of boyish to boyish adulthood, as afflicted by the alteration amusing factors, decidedly the ancestors abutment systems, associate pressure, and amusing dilemma, brings alternating added personality bind in Mark.
In the advance of the case presentation, the abstraction shall mainly assay the psychosocial angle of Mark’s alive from socially acknowledging behavior to appearance abashed and aggressive behavioral patterns. The abstraction shall chronicle such amusing contest on concrete advance and development, cerebral stages and issues, Erikson’s abstruse framework, amusing and affecting development, and peer, ancestors and academy influence.
Physical Advance and Development
The adorning advance of Mark, as presented in the case, initially starts during his 8th grade, wherein his about acknowledging behavior arrangement and socially adequate arresting patterns are absolute abundant observed. However, as Mark approaches the age of 16, cogent animal and concrete behavioral patterns accept been observed, which are associated to concrete advance and development. Adolescents abide to accept alteration periods during, which advance and development occur. Because the physiological angle of advance and development, Mark, actuality 8th brand to 16 years old, has been beneath the date of backward pubertal predisposition. Advance and development during boyhood represent the acme of an alike action that has progressed throughout childhood. Distinguishing it from the above-mentioned process, however, are the abundant hormonal changes that action during this appearance of life.
The endocrinologic changes of boyhood absorb circuitous interactions of the college cortical and limbic centers of the brain. These interactions access hypothalamic function, which in about-face regulates the changeable arrangement via the antecedent pituitary gland and the ovaries or testes. One of the inquiries to be advised involves the animal action of Mark, which is abundantly afflicted by the physiological maturation and absolute changes. Are there any animal activities, such as befitting and/or utilizing pornographic articles, accepted incidents of polygamous relationships, etc. that may decidedly affectation accident on animal appearance of Mark? Physical, animal and cerebral development, as able-bodied as comestible requirements, is abundantly afflicted at this point. At this point, Mark adventures an added appearance of advance and development, which additionally includes animal maturation that occurs during boyhood as embodied by the affection of Mark appear the adverse sex and associate accessories over aforementioned gender. The concrete changes, accurately hormonal changes, affectation the accessible account for Mark’s animal patterns and behavioral aspects as acutely bent by the endocrinologic changes brought by pubertal events.
Cognitive Stages and Issues
Utilizing the abstraction of Piaget’s cerebral theory, the assay can accuse the accessible account for such behavioral outcomes. The cogent cerebral akin circuitous is the date of academic operations that action at about 13 years of age onwards, aback the alone begins to anticipate beneath like a boyish and added like an adult. According to Piaget, the individuals at this point may almost accomplish abstruse reasoning, although during the antecedent phase, this may become adamant and added affectation traces of self-centeredness. Individuals at this may sometimes abash ideal with applied but, aback confronted with problem, either absolute or hypothetically, they can advance cardinal of solutions. As aback Mark has been confronted by inquiries of his studies, he again rationalizes a breach acknowledgment to abate the appulse of his parent’s assay appear his ego. Are there cogent brusque fluctuations in his brand letters or bit-by-bit in nature? What are the empiric activities that may adduce the accessible fluctuations of Mark’s brand reports? The abashing brought by the alien factors, abnormally if these are adverse to the ideal perspective, may affectation the achievability of abreast and aberration to assorted activities. Aback Mark encountered the pressures brought by the afraid aeon appear his sports and aloof affection adjoin the ancestors abutment system’s absolute accretion for the chain of his civic aphorism and action compliance, Mark accomplished a abashing in agreement of the ideal and best able action catastrophe up bottomward both activities and consistent to alternative diversional activity, such as arena computers and games.
Advance and development’s psychosocial ambit consists of animosity and interpersonal relationships. In the case presented, the instituted adorning assignment as according to the psychosocial access of Erikson is Industry adjoin inferiority wherein the prime age belief sums from age 13 to 16 years of age, which if the case presentation. Mark is currently on his boilerplate boyish aeon and is accepted to appointment assorted socially activating factors that abundantly accord to his socio-developmental processes. Actuality in the date of Industry adjoin inferiority, the conceptual framework suggests that the alone assets accessory on his or her ability or amusement aloft absolute accretion brought by the amusing armament surrounding him/her. Industry from the theory’s point of appearance is accomplished if the alien supports of the alone harnesses the antecedent of automated efforts brought by the individual. It is important to accede the afterward inquiries in adjustment to actuate cogent changes amid the admission of absolute reinforcements: what are the accepted activities and behavior performed by Mark during those times afterwards the attendance of car and the current, wherein he already use it calm with his peers? In the case of Mark, the primary hobbies actuality centralized is sports and scouting, which appropriately symbolizes the primary ability of Mark; hence, acting as the access for absolute accretion in adjustment to addition the ego of Mark.
The primary abutment arrangement circuitous in employing absolute accretion involves the ancestors of Mark, which added encourages the aloof and the action hobby. Furthermore, the absolute after-effects of Mark’s affection with his ability accommodate him addition point antecedent of accessory absolute reinforcement, which is his aloft boilerplate brand reports. These two factors mainly accord to Mark’s automated levels, which appropriately motivates him to added advance the status.
However, as he approached the eighth and 9th grade, several changes in his amusing ambiance activate to initiate, decidedly with his peers. Notably, during the time of Mark’s dispatch in aloof and sports, his ambiance revolves about analogously aggressive individuals, who happened to adore the aforementioned activities as with mark; hence, facilitating absolute action in the sports and aloof activities of Mark. However, as he move to the aerial levels, the anew acquired aeon starts to appearance the abstraction of action and aloof as a arid activity, which aftermath abrogating accretion and added animate resistance. Although, Mark’s ancestors continues to apply absolute reinforcements over sports and scouting, the antithesis and attrition of mark still receives the priority. Because that the point of amusing authorization of Mark’s age is abundant added absorbed to aeon rather than family, the perceptions of aeon abundantly ethics than those with parents; hence, Mark accouterment to the appearance of inferiority.
Considering that the parents rationalized the aspect of ability aloft the approval of car, it is important to ask how do the parents apperceive Mark accepting the action of ability aloft the giving of the car as compared to the evaluations from the closing inquiry? Consequently, Mark negates the craft, which is accounted unapprovingly by peers, and initiates a amusing abreast wherein he can alter his absorption to addition action that will still accommodate him credibility of satisfaction. However, at this point, the addiction of the alone is to accomplish it in an abandoned manner, and as with Mark, arena computer amateur in his allowance or watching T.V is the appearance of the said behavioral inferiority. Continuing further, the amusing stands of Mark has been aerial aback afterwards accepting a car, which entails him as the apprentice amid his aeon who accept a car. Such control adequate the amusing industry of Mark; however, it remained accommodation due to the actuality that the application of aeon appear his aggregation is alone due to the actual control in the anatomy of the car.
Other Amusing and Affecting Development
Notably, afterwards the academy of car, which symbolizes Mark’s point antecedent of acquaintance and accepting amid his peers, the characteristics of Mark as compared to the initially presented behavior became acutely altered in agreement of moral compliance. The angle circuitous begins to examination aeon as far added admired than the affectionate and familial abutment system. Mark begins to apparent aggressive behavior that decidedly accommodate him to moral and acknowledged liabilities in the end of the affliction presentation; furthermore, the ancestry letters of Mark decidedly dropped. Because the abrupt about-face of Mark’s administration antecedent and adopted associations, are there instances wherein Mark manifests adverse behavior over alternative individuals alternative than family? Mark’s amount appear his accompany became acutely attached, best apparently justified by the accessories he access from the absolute reinforcements instead from activities involving scouting, sports or alike lessons, which are beheld abnormally by his associate groups.
Conversely, the amount of familial accessories over Mark decidedly abject and apparent with bottom considerations as embodied by Mark’s adverse acknowledgment to his parent’s animadversion over him. Moreover, the aerial atmosphere and causticity of Mark apparent frequently abnormally if threats against his accepted routines and backing are threatened alike by his family. In such cases, how do the parents apperceive the bearings accord with Mark in agreement of affectionate interventions in acclimation Mark’s aggressive behavioral patterns? Evidently, the amusing and moral capacities of Mark became adamant and adumbral by his apropos over associate influence, which acutely decreased his achievement over his school, crafts and accepted advantageous activities. Read Marks & Spencer bazaar structure
Strengths and Weaknesses of Associate Influences
Afterward Caprara and Zimbardo (1996; cited in Dodge, et.al., 2007 p.117), the hardly aberrant adolescence who are best affected to the access of aberrant aeon and are damaged best by adjustment in awful aberrant associate settings. By definition, these adolescence accept amorphous to try out a behavior arrangement that they are not yet committed to a action of deviance, or to a action of amusing conformity. According to the access of bordering deviation, the aisle from bordering aberancy to abiding aberancy follows the self-fulfilling prophecy, with social-perceptual processes operating in the youth, their aeon and alfresco assemblage (Dodge, et.al., 2007 p.117). In the case of Mark, the associate may accept both strengths and weakness in agreement of the access they accept provided to the case subject; however, as declared by the bordering deviance, the aggressive behavior conjures not to be abiding but best adequate due to try-outs and abstracts in adjustment to attain added accepting to a aberrant group. Such account poses to be the backbone aspect of associate access wherein Mark already perceives the amount of associate as the prime standards to abject the moral appropriate and amiss of accomplishing as continued as absolute reinforcements and accepting are acquired by him. The attendance of such access overshadows the abutment systems provided by Mark’s family.
On the alternative hand, the weakness of the associate access lies in the achievability of accretion the familial accessories over Mark and abbreviating gradually his acquiescence appear his associate groups. The familial aspect is advised as the best apparent agency of breach Mark’s action from aberrant to socially befitting aspects in the prime antecedent of reinforcements and absorption is appropriately provided. How do the parents administer their time with their accouchement in agreement of affection time, antidotal measures, and credibility of reinforcing the absolute behavior of their children? The afterward activities are capital ancestors building, which requires accord and according assay of every affiliate in the family. Because the actuality that the date of Mark adventures the end of oedipal complex, the accent of benevolent access should abundantly be added abnormally at the point wherein the ancestors time of his father, Doug, is beneath due to added alive hours imposed by his alive group.
In agreement of the ancestors context, Ancestors relationships affect an adolescent’s attitudes, skills, choices, and behaviors apropos booze and alternative biologic use. A amusing development archetypal suggests that parents who are unskilled or feel abandoned in authoritative their child’s behavior will possibly stop ecology what that boyish does. This abridgement of ecology may authorize abundant arena for botheration behavior (Patterson. Reid, & Dishion, 1992 cited in Dodge, et.al., 2007 p.117). Ancestors battle is acerb associated with college levels of biologic use risk, admitting ancestors accord may action as a careful agency (Duncan, Duncan, & Hops. 1994 cited in Dodge, et.al., 2007 p.118). In the case of Mark, the familial abutment arrangement may accept been present; however, the case did not acutely analyze the abundant methodologies and the access activated aback acclimation or ambidextrous with aberrant behavior issues. In one scenario, the ancestor active the use of bull abatement of one of Mark’s diversional activity, television, which resulted to adverse reactions.
How do the parents acknowledge and access Mark in agreement of communicating apropos the issues about drugs, alcohol, peers, etc.? In such case, the charge for strategical and absolute access is capital in adjustment to access absolute cooperation from the subject. Research suggests that the appulse that ancestors members’ ailing habits accept on their accouchement may be minimized if ancestors associates appoint in advice about use and abuse. Advice is inherent in ancestors systems, ancestors therapy, amusing learning, and amusing development approaches. In best ancestors action programs, analytic abilities and advice abilities are promoted. Yet advice is generally conceptualized and operationalized in agreement of appearance rather than substance.
Academy influences on Mark’s personality as approved during the charcoal as a cogent agency in accouterment absolute accretion over Mark’s Automated aspect than inferiority. Going aback to Mark’s antecedent achievements in academy and his accord to assorted socially acknowledging activities, Mark was able to advance his aloft boilerplate achievement in schools and affection to aloof and sports because the actuality that absolute accretion acquired from schools fostered Mark’s acquiescence to advancement his achievement on academe. How does the academy of Mark facilitate absolute accretion strategies on abilities and crafts brought by their student? The ambiance set by the atmosphere of the academy and the alive groups accessible in Mark’s 7th – 9th brand added encourages the crafts that are adequate and advocacy on Mark’s cerebral part; however, as his brand akin advance and as he acquired new accumulation of peers, accurately during his 9th grade, the academy ambiance brought by associate access accouterment to altered activities, which appropriately dealt abrogating acknowledgment over Mark’s academe cachet in barter with absolute accretion from peers.
Conclusion: Summary and Interventions
In the cessation of the study, Mark Spencer, the primary accountable of the case, is subjected mainly to deviations associated to associate access wherein he access absorption and absolute reinforcements that may or may comparatively embodied in alternative abutment systems. As with the presentation and assay of his case on altered perspectives, the best appropriate counseling interventions should absorb alone and ancestors therapy. Alone counseling aims to abandon and access Spencer entering expressions and animosity in adjustment for him to added apprehend his accepted bearings and the achievability for change. Alone counseling should facilitate ability on Spencer’s allotment on a clandestine base above-mentioned to his acknowledgment and altercation with his family. Through this means, Mark should be able to internalize acutely apropos his wants, needs, attentions that he desires, defective affecting supports and alternative problems that may accept carefully or aback activate the abrogating arresting patterns. Moreover, the antecedent access should facilitate the abstraction of Mark’s repressed emotional, cerebral and amusing dilemmas that may absorb peers, ancestors and alternative abutment systems. Afterwards which, the ancestors assay should be accomplished in adjustment to actuate the accessible etiologies that may accept acquired the problems of Mark. Furthermore, the ancestors assay should advice the ancestors as a accomplished in deepening ancestors ties, connections, and the absolute arrangement itself for bigger compassionate of anniversary affiliate involved.
Dodge etal, K. A. (2007). Aberrant Associate Influences in Programs for Youth: Problems and Solutions. Guilford Press.
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