Can Classical and Operant Conditioning Account for the Development of Phobias?
Can classical and operant conditioning annual for the development of phobias? Classical conditioning involves bond an unconditioned bang with a conditioned stimulus. The conditioned bang again produces a conditioned response. Operant conditioning again refers to associations amid the acknowledgment and the outcome. The afterward article will appraise affirmation acknowledging classical and operant conditioning as a annual of phobias.
Other theories, such as biological and evolutionary, will additionally be taken into account, as conditioning approach is criticised for a cardinal of reasons. Psychologists accept appropriate phobias advance as a aftereffect of conditioning, and abounding phobics can bethink a specific adventure which acquired the access of their anxiety (Freud, 1909; Ost and Hugdahl, 1981). However, analysis suggests it is not all-important for a specific adventure to action to change behaviour. Kirsch et al (2004) advised rats in a maze.
They were larboard to analyze afore aliment was introduced, at which point errors in the rats' avenue through the bewilderment were bargain significantly. This suggests the rats abstruse to cross back they were not able for learning, and they formed cerebral maps after reinforcement. This affirmation of abeyant acquirements suggests acquirements can action after classical conditioning. Davey (1992) additionally begin abounding phobics do not bethink a accurate aloof conditioning episode, claiming they accept had their anxiety back they could remember.
This suggests their anxiety may accept developed after conditioning. Instead there may be, for example, a biological aspect of developing phobias. There are assertive phobias, such as for snakes and spiders, which are added accepted than others. Mineka and Ohman (2002) appropriate primates and bodies can bound accessory these altar with alarming contest because they accept acquired to do so; these altar airish a blackmail to their ancestors.
To abutment this evoluntionary theory, Cook and Mineka (1989) apparent monkeys to assorted objects, and begin they calmly acquired new fears of toy snakes and crocodiles, but did not advance fears of flowers. They appropriate this is because they had no above-mentioned acknowledgment to flowers in a alarming episode. While this analysis may still advance conditioning approach is a agency in the development of phobias, as the primates still learnt to abhorrence the object, change may additionally be a agency of anxiety development.
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