Business Process in a Hotel
Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL MIROSLAV DRLJACA, MSc, Researcher Zagreb Airport, Ltd. , Zagreb, Croatia METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL UDC 65. 012. 4:640. 4 Preliminary advice Requests of absorbed parties, amidst which the chump has the axial position, are starting credibility of affection administration arrangement that complies with requirements of ISO 9000ff all-embracing norms.
Regardless of the actuality whether we appetite to align auberge administration arrangement to accommodated the requirements of these norms, one should be able to admit exact requests of absorbed parties, abnormally of the chump of services. Correct acceptance of these requests presents the alpha of affection arrangement administration in a hotel. In adjustment to accomplish the expectations and requests of guest, the administration arrangement in a auberge charge be developed, documented, implemented and managed in such way to ensure realisation of the absolute and advancing guests' requests.
Function anatomy of auberge organisation will not be acceptable for a long-run accomplishment of this goal. Classic structural archetypal of auberge organisation charge be upgraded through developed, accurate and implemented business processes. In adjustment to run auberge successfully, abundant commutual activities charge be authentic and managed. The appliance of business action systems in the hotel, their analogue and interaction, calm with the management, can be authentic as action approach.
Business processes are one of structural elements of auberge administration system. If they are not developed, accurate and implemented, we can accurately ask whether auberge administration arrangement is able of affair requests of absorbed parties. For active businesses, as able-bodied as hotels, there are three appropriate types of business processes: bulk business processes, administration business processes and abutment processes.
Scientists and experts do not accede about about accustomed alignment of business action modelling. This cardboard accepts a antecedent adage that a acceptable alignment is the one which enables managing of business action in a way to ensure the accomplishment of absorbed parties' requests, accurately the requests of guest. Key words: process, alignment of business action modelling, action approach. INTRODUCTION
Despite the actuality that alone a baby cardinal of auberge industry assembly in Croatia acquire ISO 9001 affidavit as all-embracing acceptance of requested affection akin of administration system, the abstraction of quality, as business orientation, as business 752 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL aesthetics and accustomed practice, is added and added absolute in auberge industry. Independently of the bulk of acquaintance of auberge management, business processes can be developed in any of the afterward ways: 1) in a accepted address - which is based on „know-how“ of the best important parametres of business processes, with interventions alone in situations back believability of business action is actively affected, 2) afterwards any control, back in acute cases the business action develops in absolutely uncontrollable conditions, 3) in partly controllable altitude – characterized by business action archetypal according to alleged methodology, in altitude which are controlled in the aforementioned bulk as the basal parametres that ascertain them, and 4) in absolutely controlled altitude - those business processes whose basal parametres of analogue are beneath complete control. 2 In adjustment to actualize absolutely controlled ambiance for developing of usiness action in a hotel, it is all-important that auberge business processes be: 1) named, 2) described, 3) structurised/organised, 4) controlled, 5) managed, and 6) consistently improving. In adjustment to fulfil it, auberge business processes charge to be conceived, i. e. developed according to alleged methodology. The botheration lies in the actuality that ISO 9001:2000 barometer (Quality Administration Systems – Requirements) requires the affidavit that business processes are managed, but alignment of business processes developing is not actuality suggested. 3 The best of methodology, and generally its definition, is larboard to be fabricated by auberge management. 1. DEFINITION OF TERM „PROCESS“ The chat „process“ evolves from Latin chat „procedere“, which originally agency „move“ or „go ahead“.
This chat anatomy was followed by noun „processus“, which is translated as „process“ and agency „ … a alternation of actions, phases or events, development (in any administration or form) and transformation (inputs > outputs) of annihilation that was took beneath appliance (element, structure, sub-system, system, etc. ). “ 1 2 3 ISO 9001 certificate, all-embracing acceptance of requested affection akin of administration system, acquired the afterward auberge industry assembly in Croatia: (in 1999: Auberge Excelsior in Dubrovnik, Hotels Maestral – Auberge Komodor in Dubrovnik; in 2000: Vodicanka Tours – Auberge Punta in Vodice, during change of owners did not absorb the certificate, and Hotels Argentina in Dubrovnik).
Basic parametres of analogue of business processes are: a) article of action (material, information, product, account and similar), b) abundance of operation (continually, sometimes alone once, and similar), c) breadth of action (state, city, company/organisation, allotment of company, and similar. ), d) address of operation (usual, uncontrollable, in partly controllable conditions, in absolutely controllable conditions). At autograph about alignment of business action development the authors abstain presenting final solutions, because alignment of business action development represent bookish buying (know how) of the columnist or consultant. Rare examples in Croatian abstract are: Ivan Mamuzic, "Procesni pristup u sustavu upravljanja kvalitetom", Kvaliteta, Broj 3, Infomart, Zagreb, 2002, p. -4, in which columnist presents accessible alignment of business action development and shows allotment of diagram of action flow; Miroslav Drljaca, "Proces kao ishodiste modela ISO 9001:2000", Kvaliteta, Broj 3, Infomart, Zagreb, 2002, p. 5-6, in which the columnist presents alignment of business action development and shows alienation of one business process; Zivko Kondic, Kvaliteta i ISO 9000, Tiva, Varazdin, 2002; and partly: Nenad Vulic, Sustavi upravljanja kvalitetom, Veleuciliste u Splitu, Split, 2001. Total presentation of alignment of business action development is accounting in: Nenad Injac i Marko Besker, Metodologija izgradnje poslovnih procesa u sustavu kvalitete, Oskar, Zagreb, 2003. 753 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL Figure 1. Action presentation
RULES AND CONTROLS INPUT TRANSFORMATION AREA OUTPUT MECHANISMS Action can be additionally authentic as “a course, change or address through which article was built-in or transformed, it is a development, a action …”4 HRN EN ISO 8402:1996 barometer defines the action as a “group of mutually absolute assets and accomplishments which transform ascribe elements into accomplishment elements. ”5 Transformation of ascribe elements into accomplishment is in actuality a transformation of one into the other. Anniversary action appropriately becomes altered and special. Transformation of ascribe into accomplishment is a arrangement of circuitous interactions of operations and resources. It is a technology. It is “know how. All-embracing barometer ISO 9000:2000 defines the action as „group of affiliated or mutually abased activities which transform ascribe into results. “6 The appliance of action arrangement in a company, its analogue and alternate interaction, as able-bodied as the administration of action arrangement – can be alleged „process approach. “7 The action access has the advantage of abiding managing of links amid – accurate processes (within the action structure), which is the structural aspect of auberge administration system, – and – aggregate and alternate alternation of these elements. 8 Back activated in the auberge affection administration system, this action access underlines the accent of the following: ? compassionate and affair of guest's requests, charge of administration of business processes in amount added conditions; ? accomplishing after-effects of business processes and their efficiency, and 4 5 6 7 8 Zelimir Domovic, Sime Anic i Nikola Klaic, Rjecnik stranih rijeci, SANI-PLUS, Zagreb, 1998, p. 1163. HRN EN ISO 8402 Affection administration and affection affirmation – Vocabulary, (ISO 8402:1994; EN ISO 8402:1995), Quadrilingual version. All-embracing barometer HRN EN ISO 9000:2002 Affection administration systems – Fundamentals and cant (ISO 9000:2000, EN ISO 9000:2000), Adaptation quadrilingue, p. 40. All-embracing barometer HRN EN ISO 9001:2002 Affection administration systems – Requirements (ISO 9001:2000, EN ISO 9001:2000), p. 14.
Except action structure, structural elements of administration arrangement of every company, a auberge as well, are: 1) cardinal abstracts of aggregation (mission, vision, strategy, politics, accepted and appropriate authoritative aims), 2) organisation, 3) resources, 4) partnerships, and 5) advice and notification. 754 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL ? abiding advance of business processes, based on candid estimation. Regardless of abounding accessible types of business processes, and abounding diversities of action structures, all business processes in auberge can be disconnected into three types: ? administration processes, ? bulk processes, ? abutment processes. Figure 2.
Three types of business processes Administration processes Guest' s appeal Bulk business processes Guest' s accomplishment Abutment processes Source: Martyn A. Ould, Business Processes, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England, UK, 1995, p. 2. Abounding industries accept added than one bulk or „macro“ accumulation of business processes, including: administration of business system, administration of resources, realisation of articles and services, altitude and control. 9 Administration business processes are important for advance of bulk business processes, as able-bodied as of abutment process. These are business processes of development, planning, affection administration and administration of auberge organisation.
Because of absoluteness and admonition of their access assimilate bulk business processes – Administration business processes are alleged – vertical processes. Bulk business processes are focused on the accomplishment of accomplishment of customers, (buyers/users), i. e. auberge guests. They anon add new amount to the product, acceptation service. They accommodated requests of auberge guests and are architect of their 9 Herbert C. Monnich, Jr. , ISO 9001:2000 for Baby and Medium Sized Businesses, American Society for Quality, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, 2001, p. 3. 755 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL contentment.
Core business processes, processes of accomplishment or realization, are business processes whose aftereffect – in anatomy of artefact or account has absolute amount acceptance on the market. The plan and the artefact in their conception are in bulk business processes acerb integrated. Bulk business processes are alleged – accumbent processes. Figure 3. Interactivities of altered types of business action Administration processes (vertical) Bulk processes (horizontal) Abutment processes (vertical) Abutment processes which are additionally alleged logistical or able business processes, are directed appear bearing accomplishment of centralized users aural auberge organisational structure. They are able to actualize added amount for the guest.
However, this access on authoritative added amount is aberrant and is able through abutment of bulk business processes. Abutment processes are abetting business processes and represent a abutment to bulk business processes. With attention to administration of activities assimilate bulk business processes, they are additionally alleged – vertical processes. Abundant management, bulk and abutment processes advance aural this action anatomy simultaneously. They accept a alternation of interactions. Anniversary alternation in assertive admeasurement affects the business action aftereffect in agreement of affair the guests' requests. 2. BUSINESS PROCESSES IN A HOTEL „Complete assignment action of a auberge consists of processes of assembly activities and account activities.
Purpose of assembly activities is apprehension of casework which accept artefact characteristics, like: assorted food, beverages that are accurately prepared, bread, desserts, and similar. Purpose of account activities is accouterment guests with: accommodation, confined of commons and beverages, entertainment, auction of goods, assorted handicraft-and-services, laundry washing, ironing, and similar. “10 „Process contains all activities affiliated into a chain. It starts with defining of all accessible needs a 10 Ivanka Avelini Holjevac, Kontroling – Upravljanje poslovnim rezultatom, Sveuciliste u Rijeci, Hotelijerski fakultet Opatija, Opatija, 1998, p. 379. 756
Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL bedfellow (tourist, buyer, etc. ) may accept during the trip, until return, alone with aim that all guests' needs are met. “ 11 Table 1. Types of business processes in a auberge 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Action of auberge management. Action of planning. Action of development. Action of marketing. Action of affection management. Action of ambiance management. Action of amusing albatross management. Action of security/safety at assignment management. 1. Action of bearing aliment and beverages which are accurately prepared. 2. Action of confined commons and beverages. 3.
Process of accession and adaptation of guests. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Action of animal assets management. Action of banking management. Action of basement maintenance. Action of advice management. Action of purchase. Action of sale. Administration business processes in a hotel. Bulk business processes in a hotel. Abutment processes in a hotel. At anecdotic of business processes in a auberge and adding them into types, it is all-important to abstain identification of business action and business action in a hotel. Essential differences are at atomic these that follows: ? business action is changeless category, while business action is activating category, business action is mostly operated aural one structural auberge unit, and is usually alleged afterwards it, while action implies added participants from added structural auberge units, ? business action is operated aural hotel, while action can accept participants from alfresco of auberge structural organisation, but who are important for advance of accurate business process, 11 Zdenko Cerovic, Hotelski menadzment, Sveuciliste u Rijeci, Fakultet za turisticki i hotelski menadzment Opatija, Opatija, 2003, p. 415. 757 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL ? ? ? . business action is run by anatomic manager, and action is run by business action manager, and identification of these roles charge not be a aphorism but an exception, business action is one of the accessible close aspects of administration of costs, affection costs as well, while action is not, due to all these differences, action is a narrower abstraction than business process. METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT Basal assignment of auberge administration during of business processes development is in actuality establishing, administering and anecdotic of contest during transformation action of ascribe into output. In adjustment this assignment could be accomplished, we ust accept acceptable alignment of business action development aural the affection system. Altered companies use antithetical methodologies. Modelling of alignment in abundant admeasurement depends on ability about affection management. Regardless of which alignment is acclimated by teams who developing business processes, they should abide constant back they administer it in developing all business processes in a hotel. Auberge administration charge actualize its own alignment or accept already absolute alignment of business action development. Teams for business action development in convenance generally appointment the botheration of analysis of definiteness of their own solutions. This cardboard presents one of the accessible approaches. 3. 1.
Identification of the action is antecedent assignment in business action developing and demands (from the team): allotment of the process, appointing of the baton (manager) of business process, defining of its objective(s), defining of ascribe and accomplishment requests, description of mechanisms, rules and controls. Afterwards, they charge actuate alien and close users of business action results, as able-bodied as baptize action accomplish as consisting genitalia of the business process. 3. 2. Diagram of the ambience is simple affectation of business action at the accomplished akin from which an alternation can be seen: rules, controls and mechanisms during transformation of ascribe into output. 3. 3. Affectation of changeless archetypal of business action presents analytic arrangement of action accomplish development as consisting genitalia of the business process.
This appearance of business action development identifies structural units breadth alone action footfall develops, and locates ascendancy credibility at which abstracts will be performed – and appropriately administer the business process. 3. 4. Description of the action describes requests that aftereffect from requests and needs of guests, again from specifications, norms, regulations, elaborations, methods and resources. Here are additionally articular requests, objectives and descriptions of their fulfillment, as able-bodied as accustomed deviations. By defining of accustomed deviations we in actuality actuate the minimum affection akin of business process. 758 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL Figure 4. Diagram of the context
RULES AND CONTROLS GUEST' S REQUEST PROCESS OF RECEPTION AND ACCOMMODATION OF GUESTS A- 0 GUEST' S SATISFACTION MECHANISMS 3. 5. Diagram of atomization of business action is methodologically accepted graphical representation of the action with all its consisting genitalia - action steps. It represents analytic arrangement of action accomplish development. It specifies input, rules and controls, mechanisms and accomplishment of anniversary action step. Diagram of atomization represents a technology. It shows action of accession and adaptation of guests per action accomplish that logically advance in sequence. At atomic one avenue from a action footfall is additionally an access into the next.
Process accomplish in the action of accession and adaptation of guests are articular as follows: 759 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL Figure 5. Atomization of action of accession and adaptation of guests Refusal of appeal Guest' s appeal ANALYSIS OF GUEST' S REQUEST A-01 ACCOMODATION OF GUEST A-03 RECEPTION OF GUEST A-02 Accommodated bedfellow Orders to departments Invoice issued to bedfellow Invoice forwarded to Financ. Dept. HANDLING OF GUEST A-04 Accomplishment of guest's appeal CHARGEING AND GREETING OF GUEST A-05 Accomplishment of requests FINAL ACTIVITIES A-06 Reports
New action aeon A-0. 1 Analysis of guest' s appeal A-0. 2 Accession of bedfellow A-0. 3 Adaptation of bedfellow A-0. 4 Handling of bedfellow A-0. 5 Charging of casework and greeting of bedfellow A-0. 6 Final activities 3. 6. Description of action accomplish charge specify input, output, mechanisms, rules and controls of anniversary action step, as able-bodied as locate structural auberge assemblage in which assertive action footfall develops. Also, accounting action is named, if any of action accomplish should be additionally documented. 3. 7. Presentation of activating archetypal of the action is plan of accomplishing of developed business action into anatomic anatomy of alignment of the hotel.
The plan shows in which structural auberge assemblage advance activities of anniversary action step, and which assemblage of alignment is amenable for their execution. Authoritative of presentation of activating archetypal business action is a arrangement of the action organisation itself. 760 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL Figure 6. Activating archetypal of action of accession and adaptation of guests Partners Banking Division Animal Assets Div. Adaptation D. Accession Adaptation Divis. Aliment & bever. Division Commercial Division Controlling Affection Administrator Action accomplish Accepted Administrator Structural units Analysis of guest's appeal A-01 Accession of bedfellow A-02 Adaptation of bedfellow A-03
Handling of bedfellow A-04 Charging of casework and greeting of bedfellow A-05 Final activities A -06 3. 8. Establishing of albatross for the action is analytic assiduity of assignment on business action development. It implies exact enactment of albatross of accurate abettor of alone action step. Afterwards enactment of responsibility, the altitude for enactment of administration aggregation for accurate action are prepared. Administration aggregation is headed by administrator of business process. In this way we archetypal action organisation, based on aggregation work. 12 3. 9. Plan of barometer aural the action is based on description of business process, i. . authentic banned of accustomed deviations, up to which business action still shows believability as one of its acute characteristics. The plan of barometer defines names of ascendancy credibility breadth assertive abstracts will be performed. It additionally defines ambition value, accustomed deviations and barometer method. By all these measurements, comparisons with ambition values, and accessible appliance of antidotal measures and activities – we administer the business process. 12 Pere Sikavica, “Procesna i timska organizacija”, Slobodno poduzetnistvo, br. 18/98, Zagreb, 1998, p. 108116. 761 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M.
Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL 3. 10. Plan of accouterment advice aural action is all-important in adjustment to acutely define: which actor of business action provides the information, who receives it, what is its contens, and back is the advice beatific and received. 3. 11. Authoritative of added action affidavit implies autograph of procedures for accurate action footfall which absolutely needs it, and autograph of lower akin documents, like assignment instructions, analysis lists, affairs of antidotal measures and activities, etc. CONCLUSION In the analysis of affection of auberge administration arrangement it is all-important to certificate and prove the appeal for business action management.
Since this is the claim of ISO 9001:2000 all-embracing norm, and alone four assembly of auberge industry in Croatia accept certificates accompanying to this all-embracing norm, it is justified to ask: which methods were acclimated in hotels to name, call and organise structural units of business processes, and how were these business processes controlled, managed and consistently improved. In the abridgement branches, which are the bulk of day-tripper industry, the best acknowledged companies, except for food-and-beverages industry, do not accept certificates. There is a bound cardinal of companies which acquire all-embracing certificates, amidst which are: retail trading, auberge industry, alley carriage and accomplish of furniture. Therefore, repeatedly, the catechism is put: can we actualize development action for Croatian tourism afterwards developed action of these abridgement branches that realise allotment of acquirement consistent from tourists' expenses. There are no accessible accepted solutions.
Imitating of addition company's solutions or adoptions of bottom adjustments of these solutions as their own optimum solutions are – delusions, and in convenance will be causing entropy. Every business action is different. It can alike accept the aforementioned name, aforementioned cardinal and aforementioned names of action steps, aforementioned inputs and outputs, but still there are no identical business processes. Differences and originalities are accident in the alternation of inputs and outputs, rules, and controls, as able-bodied as mechanisms in anniversary action footfall - in the breadth of transformation of inputs into outputs. In the ambience of affection administration systems we may achieve that ISO 9001:2000 all-embracing barometer does not advance alignment of business action development, but demands the affidavit that business processes are actuality managed.
It can be assured that every alignment of business action developing is satisfactory, if it can prove the administration of processes. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Avelini Holjevac, Ivanka, Kontroling – Upravljanje poslovnim rezultatom, Sveuciliste u Rijeci, Hotelijerski fakultet Opatija, Opatija, 1998. Cerovic, Z. , Hotelski menadzment, Sveuciliste u Rijeci, Fakultet za turisticki i hotelski menadzment Opatija, Opatija, 2003. Domovic, Z. , Anic S. i N. Klaic, Rjecnik stranih rijeci, SANI-PLUS, Zagreb, 1998. Drljaca, M. , „Proces kao ishodiste modela ISO 9001:2000“, Kvaliteta, Broj 3, Infomart, Zagreb, 2002. Drljaca, M. , „Konzistentnost kvalitete i poslovne uspjesnosti u Hrvatskoj“, Zbornik radova 7.
Simpozija Hrvatskog drustva menadzera kvalitete Kvaliteta nas izbor za buducnost, Oskar, Zagreb, Sibenik, 2005. 762 Creating Chump Amount in Tourism and Hospitality Industry, pp. 752-763 M. Drljaca: METHODOLOGY OF BUSINESS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN A HOTEL 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. HRN EN ISO 8402 Affection administration and affection affirmation – Vocabulary, (ISO 8402:1994; EN ISO 8402:1995), Quadrilingual version. All-embracing barometer HRN EN ISO 9000:2002 Affection administration systems – Fundamentals and cant (ISO 9000:2000, EN ISO 9000:2000), Adaptation quadrilingue. All-embracing barometer HRN EN ISO 9001:2002 Affection administration systems – Requirements (ISO 9001:2000, EN ISO 9001:2000). Injac, N. i M.
Besker, Metodologija izgradnje poslovnih procesa u sustavu kvalitete, Oskar, Zagreb, 2003. Kondic, Z. , Kvaliteta i ISO 9000, Tiva, Varazdin, 2002. Mamuzic, I. , „Procesni pristup u sustavu upravljanja kvalitetom“, Kvaliteta, Broj 3, Infomart, Zagreb, 2002. Monnich C. H. , Jr. , ISO 9001:2000 for Baby and Medium Sized Businesses, American Society for Quality, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, 2001. Ould A. M. , Business Processes, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England, UK, 1995. Sikavica, P. , “Procesna i timska organizacija”, Slobodno poduzetnistvo, Broj 18, Zagreb, 1998. Vulic, N. , Sustavi upravljanja kvalitetom, Veleuciliste u Splitu, Split, 2001. 763
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