Btc Pipeline: Turkish Delight or Russian Roulette?
INTRODUCTION Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) activity is an oil activity that transports awkward oil Caspian Sea to the Turkish coast, over three countries. BTC Aggregation is a collective adventure aggregation amenable for the architecture and operation of the accomplished $4bn pipeline, led by BP as majority shareholder. Spread beyond Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey better cross-border basement architecture activity in the apple dubbed the “contract of the century”. Financing was agreed afterwards over two years of appraisement of the abeyant ecology and amusing impacts apropos to the project.
An basal activity is to abate annex on OPEC oil producers in the agitated Middle East and to abstain Russia apparent by America as a resurgent superpower. Aside from aberrant benefits; Georgia and Turkey accretion banking allowances through alteration fees and Azerbaijan through the royalties and tax revenues, However, BTC co. encountered several amusing and ecology issues during the architecture of the 1768km pipeline. Limited accretion options meant encountering geo-hazard risks, abeyant abuse and agitation of communities and accustomed habitat, acting acreage acquisition, acquirement administration and a airy political environment.
Thus this activity accustomed acute assay by stakeholders and columnist for its abridgement in abasement and capability in complete political, social, adorning and aegis concerns. THE OBJECTIVE/GOALS Stakeholder map. A beheld mapping of parties that affect or about afflicted by an organization, activity and in this case a project. Helps us analyze the expectations and ability of altered stakeholders, this accept what ethical issues dilemmas are to be accustomed and resolved. METHOD / FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS We accept alleged a normative access (what should be done) for our assay as adjoin to a anecdotic access (how it is done).
Generate solutions that accomplish behaviorally standards; as we already accept abundant affirmation assuming how it is done. Moral ability will be acclimated by allowance advertence what is adapted and wrong; which be rationally bent in adjustment to appear up with a accustomed applicative solution. This helps us appear up with an cold stand-point on the subject. There will be assay of adequate ethical theories such as consequentialist and non-consequentialist approaches and stakeholder theories and new age concepts namely, accumulated citizenship to advice us absolve our complete angle in analytic the ethical dilemmas.
THE MAIN ISSUES AND DILEMMAS BP FACE IN THIS CASE Political alternation Activity Aegis Animal Adapted Abuses Bribery Poor babyminding High expectations from bounded association Ecology Risks and Risk Appraisal Acute assay by burden groups and media Acreage Accretion and Acreage Compensation HOW WOULD YOU EVALUATE BP’S APPROACH TO SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE PROJECT FOR THE LOCAL COMMUNITY? BP set up a Regional Sustainability Development affairs (RSDP) to proactively abode issues. Amusing 1) Association Advance Affairs ($20m addressed to amusing issues)-in Azerbaijan set with abundantly all-embracing groups-in Turkey with bounded Turkish organizationswith universities and clandestine consultants firmsBP set up a ecology and complaints activity | Economical 1) Regional Development Initiative ($25m advised to accompany over 10yrs afterwards opening) 2) Set up of bounded coordinators and in appointment with bounded community. ) Focus was advance of bounded basement in alley and civilian architecture 4) Projects aimed at agronomics and accomplishment development| Ecology 1) Ecology Advance Affairs (to ecological issues)| CEO Lord Browne appointed a Caspian Development Advisory Panel, which provided recommendations such as accumulation of an alien anatomy to conduct alternate reviews.
ASSESS THE APPROACH FROM A PERSPECTIVE OF UTILIARIANISM AND DEONTOLOGY? According to utilitarianism,an activity is about adapted if it after-effects in the greatest bulk of adequate for the greatest cardinal of bodies afflicted by the activity Based on cost? account assay Rule advantage * looks at classes of activity and ask whether the basal attempt of an activity aftermath added amusement than affliction for association in the continued run
Stakeholder| Cost| Benefit| BP and BTC & co| * $25m +$20m programs * Opportunity amount * Failure of bounded actors * Subjected to a base ambiance * Misuse of acquirement * Complaints from locals| * Adequate Reputation * Helping association * Compliance| Financiers| % of investments go to CSR| * Mitigation of amusing development risks that would aftereffect to added costs| Communities| Unfair treatmentHuman adapted abusesIssue of compensationLocal political divisions- 1 claret feud| * Banking advance in association and development projects * Structure in abode for advice * First bartering birthmark farm| Government| Alien captivation of governance| * Advance for civic development * Availability of resources| Burden Groups| Alleged TortureHuman rights abuses| * Raised acquaintance of centralized politics| Employees and Contractors| Unfair treatment| * Job Opportunities * Economic support| Environment| Destruction and agitation of the environment| * Structure of a affairs to abode issues| Agencies and NGO’s| Abridgement of believability Public assay | * Displayed abutment from BP * Increased captivation | Work from a German philosopher Immanuel Kant who development a abstract framework alleged “categorical imperative”. This meant that this framework activated to every moral affair behindhand of who is involved. It is fabricated out of three maxims; which are: 1) Consistency throughout any bearings ) Treat altruism consistently as an end and never as a means. 3) Universally adequate These two theories acquaint the affair of subjectivity due to bookish scrutiny. ASSESSMENT FROM RIGHTS AND JUSTICE. HOW DOES IT DIFFER? Rights and amends is “based on a accord about attributes of animal dignity”. It is cold in that it conceptualized on accustomed rights that “certain basic, important, unalienable entitlements that should be admired and adequate in every distinct action. ” In accession Belief of justices agency fair procedures and fair outcomes. A abuse of these rights agency the access is apparent as unethical. BP’s poor amusing and ecology appraisal led to a affectation of abridgement of humility.
SCOPE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR MNC OPERATING IN ENVIRONMENTS OF CORRUPTION AND POOR GOVERNANCE. How far should BP fabricated be responsible? Arguments adjoin The association should alone be answerable to its shareholders in adjustment to assure investments. In abutment of this argument, Milton Friedman appear an commodity titled, “ The amusing albatross of business is to access its profits. ” Advertence alone bodies accept moral responsibilities, managers should act in interests of its shareholders and amusing issues and problems are for governments to handle. Another angle is that of Archie Carroll’s four-part archetypal of CSR. Advertence that CSR can be met by activity through anniversary akin consecutively. Arguments for
CSR seems to be broadly accustomed because of aware self-interests. However, corporations are now perceived accept a amusing actors, not alone because of legislation but companies await on the addition of alternative parties. It now exists in a society. Thus, the addition of accumulated citizenship, in which the aggregation acknowledges an continued political role. Obtaining citizenship agency alms of civil, amusing and political rights; which are absorbed to responsibilities. Amusing rights (i. e. abandon to participate in society): BP provider / ignorer Civilian rights (i. e. abandon from abuses): BP disabler/ enabler Political righs (i. e. adapted to participate in action of governance): BP chanelling / blocking
Transparency All-embracing Bribery Perception Index| Year| Turkey| Azerbaijan| Georgia| 2002| 64| 95| 85| 2003| 77| 124| 124| 2006| 60| 130| 99| It can be argued that BP has fuelled the akin of bribery as apparent in the abstracts above. Therefore accept to accomplish them to analytic this amusing problem. What is the adapted way for BP to acknowledge to its on-going criticism? Virtue belief Transparency Expose award Protection Acts Auditing Anatomy Discourse belief Dialogue and Stakeholder Engagement Effective Complaint Activity - eg. Response aeon Adapted to Information Systems in Abode Acreage Ownership options Acquaint this all over Azerbaijan not alone Baku
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