Bad-Bad Words (Term Paper)
Bad-Bad Words Der’rik Hardin Psych 326 December 1, 2012 Dr. Hennon Bad-Bad Words The ambition of this cardboard is to conduct a alternation of assay on anathema words, their meanings, and a abrupt history of profanity. I additionally intend to appearance that anathema words are accounted adequate in assertive amusing situations in the American culture. To activate we charge ascertain semantic. Semantics is a annex of linguistics that deals with the abstraction of meaning, changes in meaning, and the attack that administer the accord amid sentences or words and their meanings (Weinreich, Labov, & Weinreich, (1980).
It can additionally be referred to as the abstraction of the relationships amid signs and symbols and what they represent. But presently, does the acceptation of the anathema chat amount anymore or is it the way we portray these bad words in a specific amusing situation? Ambiguity and Anathema Words Currently there is no exact approach to explain why bodies anathema or why we chose the words we use to ascertain these anathema words. Psychologists, linguists, accent pathologists and a cardinal of alternative advisers accept been absorption on such an account for some time.
According to Jay, (2000), cursing is an capital aspect of accent in linguistics and psycholinguistics that refers to assorted uses of abhorrent speech. The appellation cursing is subjected to abounding cryptic words such as swearing, obscenity, name calling, insulting, ethnic-racial slurs, boorishness and slang, (Jay, 2000). These agreement will be acclimated interchangeably throughout the paper. Thanks to assay conducted by Timothy Jay in 1992, it was absolutely simple to analyze amid the use of cursing and its abounding cryptic terms.
For starters, cursing is added than name calling. In fact, to anathema is to alarm aloft all-powerful or abnormal ability in adjustment to account abuse to another, (Jay, 2000). The absorbed abaft cursing is to account concrete abuse on addition through the use of words and phrases. Best Americans use cursing in abbreviate phrases, out of acrimony and annoyance to get their point beyond with able accent of the portrayed emotion, (Jay, 2000). Swearing is the use of any chat or byword that is adequate to account breach back acclimated in average chic affable chat (McEnery, 2005).
Swearing originally meant to booty an adjuration accurately or religiously until a additional acceptation accustomed the appellation to booty on the use of abhorrent accent (Hughes, 2006). Initially, swearing seemed to abet positivity in sentences as it replaced agitated accomplishments as a agency of cogent acrimony (Jay, 1992) and still advised to be a analogue to the carefully accompanying chat curse. To the American culture, abomination is beheld as animal in attributes (Jay, 1992). Atrocious accent may abide of words such as “fuck” “cunt,” or “motherfucker. ” According to Jay (1992), to characterization a chat as atrocious is technically akin that chat to chargeless speech.
This agency such a chat cannot be acclimated advisedly and can be subjected to restrictions or abuse from the arch administering body. It is the American ability which gives atrocious words the affiliation to animal agreeable and imagery. For this reason, courts account abomination as abhorrent and not to be advisedly uttered, abnormally in the media, books, and alternative forms of accessible ball (Jay, 1992). Written in The Mother Tongue, English and How it Got That Way (Bryson, 1996), it is binding that a blur or motion account be rated R application assertive absolute words.
The Federal Communications Commission, (FCC), attempted to exclude seven bad words from advertisement television; these consisted of “shit,” “piss,” “fuck,” “cunt,” “cocksucker,” “motherfucker,” and “tits,” (Sapolsky and Kaye, 2005). Even admitting Americans can be antipathetic of swearing, some swearing does action on U. S. television (Sapolsky and Kaye, 2005) such as South Park (Grimm, 2003). Producing several acknowledged seasons, South Park acclimated milder bad words like, “hell,” “ass,” “screw you,” “bitch,” bastard”, and “son-of-bitch,” for archetype (Sapolsky and Kaye, 2005).
Insults and slurs can be advised alternative forms of anathema words, or bad words in general. They booty on a agnate acceptation as anathema words in their agnate acceptance to account abuse to addition individual. Although blame and slurs abide of altered bad words, they are both forms of exact attacks. While slurs accord with amusing background, race, and ethnicity advertence stereotypes, blame denote physical, mental, or cerebral qualities (Jay, 1992). Lastly, abomination was a new chat for me which refers to the use of animal decay products, (Jay, 1992).
Americans generally apprehend the use of abomination amidst adolescent adults and accouchement added than earlier individuals. This is apparently because the consept of animal decay is amusing to the adolescent crowd. For example, my son, Aiden, brand to accredit to his wet underwear as “pissy,” back he has an blow (which originated from his grandmother). Alternative words in abomination accommodate “shit,” “ass,” “crap,” or “ka ka. ” The allocation of bad words is absolutely basic for the purposes of semantic evaluation. This allows linguists to ascertain the altered blazon of meanings these utterances apply on the animal accent (Jay, 1992).
Some of these classifications, as there are added than what I accept listed above, may overlap a lot. According to Bryson, (1996) in adjustment to apperceive the absolute acceptation abaft a anathema word, the adviser charge apperceive the absorbed and appraise the anatomy in which the anathema chat is actuality used. For example, Whitney tells her best acquaintance to “shut the fuck up” as they are bedlam absurdly against to Whitney cogent her acquaintance to “shut the fuck up! ” as they are arguing over pizza. The archetype shows two altered scenarios with the aforementioned chat acceptance but altered affecting absorbed abaft them.
In adjustment for the adviser to adapt the two scenarios abnormally they charge pay absorption and appraise how Whitney is communicating in anniversary sentence. As put by Dewaele (2004), the perceived backbone abaft anathema words affairs rather than articular on the base of chat semantics. Anathema Words in their Proper Setting Although, mainly begin offensive, anathema words are not consistently acclimated to account harm. For example, in a jokingly chat amid two friends, one may absolute the account “kiss my ass” which may be begin amusing to the alternative friend.
Yet, still individuals do not consistently acquisition anathema words funny, such as back one is actuality told to “fuck off” during a disagreement. The use of cursing serves to amplify or put accent on the affections of the apostle which additionally drags absorption to the adviser (Jay, 2000). For this acumen some bodies anathema to appearance how acerb they feel about the affair they may be speaking on. For example, in my experience, back an altercation break out the admirers will apprehend name calling, such as “bitch,” “whore,” etc. Abaft the name calling is absolute absorbed to abuse the alternative actuality actuality argued with.
Even admitting this is a bad archetype to appearance a absolute use for anathema words, it demonstrates the affecting acrimony and annoyance that the two arguers are aggravating to back through the use of name calling, or the appellation added broadly accustomed by the American public, anathema words (Jay, 1992). It seems to be alternate ability that anathema words are bad “pursue,” yet they are still frequently acclimated depending on the bearings or demographics. For example, best parents apperceive not to use anathema words about adolescent children. So, back is it accept to use cursing agreement and why is it situational based?
Not alone does the bearings amount but the best of anathema words and ability makes a difference. Bryson (1996) provides a account of words begin best abhorrent in assertive cultures. Some of these bad words could be classified beneath slurs because they apply racial, amusing chic and indigenous breach to a assertive accumulation of people. In Norwegian it is awful abhorrent to alarm addition a “devil” (Bryson, 1996), which is agnate to the American “fucker. ” Some cultures about do not affirm at all as their built-in accent does not accommodate swear/curse words.
These cultures accommodate the Japanese, Malayans, and best Polynesians and Built-in American Indians (Bryson, 1996). Admitting the baby cardinal of countries that do not disregard to cursing, best cultures anathema and accept been accomplishing so for a actual continued time (Bryson 1996). A abstraction on Romans, done by Dr. J. N. Adams of Manchester University in England, begin an estimated 800 bad words in their vocabulary. These allegation are outstanding, compared to the English accent absolute almost about twenty depending on how they are actuality acclimated (Bryson, 1996).
In an commodity exploring the use of affirm words during actor comedy, Susan Seizer begin it adapted to use such abomination and barnyard words admitting the Supreme Court censorship rulings. Siezer (2011), uses swear/curse words in an idiomatic, non-denotational, and non-referential way to advance amusement and amusement for the audience. Her goal, in this study, was to use words such as “fuck” or “holy shit” to advance commodity alternative than animal or excretory images to the public.
She additionally intends to added the aftereffect of absolution Americans from these referential and denotational chat uses in an attack to accessible up anapestic pleasures of chat ball (Seizer, 2011). Seizer’s antecedent was accustomed absolute her study. Through her examples and agreement she accustomed that the comedic use of bedraggled words can be illustrated in a non-denotational address for the account of ball and humor. By application abomination this way a about-face in the audiences expectations and confused abroad from animal boorishness to sorts of amusement (Seizer, 2011).
Obscenity throughout the agreement acute and agitated the expressions of the speaker’s angle and absurd adventures which additionally put the admirers at affluence as the chargeless ball with words acquiesce the actor to accessible up and heighten the states of alertness (Seizer, 2011). Seizer’s abstraction answer the abstraction that anathema words are not consistently apparent as a bad affair but added situational based. Depending on the environment, it seems to be accept to advisedly ball with words such as “dick,” “fuck,” “pussy,” and “shit,” as Susan acclimated in her experiment.
Apparently, if it is amusing to the audience, abandon of accent is accustomed anywhere. As appear by Andersson and Trudgill (1992), swearing may action in jokes for amusing absorbed and abounding jokes depend on the shock amount of affirm words for humor; inversely apropos anathema words and comedy. Not alone are anathema words accounted adequate through ball but for ball purposes as well. Booty chicanery for example. Affirm or bad words are acclimated in porn to acute amative behavior amid two actors. Coates (2003) additionally appear the use of swearing in amusing situations.
According to Coates (2003), Adolescents may accurate their character of actuality air-conditioned through anathema words or to affectation accurateness in friendships and accustomed accumulation settings. Abrupt History in Profanity After analytic through several accessories and assorted books I came to apprehend that anathema words has never had a accurate historian. Mencken, (1944) letters bad words, or profanity as he agreement it in his article, came to America from England during the Seventeenth Century. In this age of time the use of anathema words was not socially accepted.
Mencken (1944) goes on to address about John Adams. In 1755, John Adams accustomed rules for the Navy of the United Colonies in agreement of profanity. Sailors who chose to allege profanely were accustomed to abrasion a board collar or a base brand (Mencken, 1944). John Adams was not the alone man in history to abuse citizens for the use of profanity. One year above-mentioned to Adam’s rules, George Washington active his own set of rules for soldiers in adjustment to abatement the use of swearing or abusive cursing (Mencken, 1944). Unfortunately, these rules did not authority abounding years.
Near the end of the aeon Richard Parkinson declared the words “damned” and “hell” as a new byword acclimated by abounding Republicans. Parkinson acicular out that men in aerial ability acclimated abusive accent as well, including George Washington (Mencken, 1944). Accepting Anathema Words Agnate to our day in age, the brake of cursing, profanity, and swearing was not acknowledged and still broadly acclimated at the acumen of the public. Written in the North American Review of 1934, and cited in Mencken’s commodity (1944), Burges Johnson declared that American profanity was accident its” punch”.
By that he agency the severity of anathema words has beneath over time. As we can see, the convenance of anathema words is acceptable added socially accustomed and acclimated to accurate identities for some bodies while emphasizing the absorbed abaft accent for others. Hinduja and Patchin (2008) appear the admeasurement to which adolescence affirm on amusing networks. Their assay abstracts on swearing and Myspace showed 19. 2 percent of participant’s claimed profiles independent swearing and 32. 8 percent of participants swearing on their accompany profile.
Cursing has acquired and become a all-important allotment of accent (Jay, 2000). Mentioned in Jay’s book (2000), a absolute approach of cursing charge be congenital into animal linguistics and cerebral models of accent because it captures the affecting aspects of accent forth with the emphasized, abhorrent absorbed abaft the speaker. This approach of cursing charge be accustomed and congenital into animal linguistics because animal accent does not abide after animal affect which cannot be afar from affecting reactions in the use of accent (Jay, 2000).
Works Cited Andersson, L. G. and P. Trudgill. (1992). Bad Language. London: Pengiun. Bryson, B. (1996). The Mother Tongue: English and how it got that way. New York: Avon Books. Coates, J. (2003). Men Talk. Maldon, MA: Blackwell. Dewaele, J. (2004). The affecting force of swearwords and anathema words in the accent of multilinguals'. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Developments, 25(2,3), 204-222. Hinduja, S. , ; Patchin, J. W. (2008). Claimed advice of adolescents on the internet: A quantitative agreeable assay of myspace.
Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 125-146. Hughes, G. (2006). An album of swearing: The amusing history of oaths, profanity, abhorrent language, and indigenous slurs in the English-speaking world. Armonk, NY [u. a. : Sharpe. ] Jay, T. (1992). Cursing in America: A psycholinguistic abstraction of bedraggled accent in the courts, in the movies, in the schoolyards, and on the streets. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. Jay, T. (2000). Why we curse: A neuro-psycho-social approach of speech. Philadelphia, Pa. [u. a. : Benjamins. ] McEnery, T. (2005). Swearing in english.
London: Routledge. Mencken, H. L. (1944). American profanity. American Speech, 109(4), 242-249. Sapolsky, B. S. , ; Kaye, B. K. (2005). The of abhorrent langauge by men and women in prime time television entertainment. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 13(4), 292-303 Seizer, S. (2011). The unmentionable: Exact anathema and the moral activity of language. On the Uses of Abomination in Live Stand-Up Comedy, 84(1), 209-234. Weinreich, U. , Labov, W. , ; Weinreich, B. S. (1980). On semantics. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.
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