Tutorial 1: Diminutive Structure and Bonding in Solids
(a)Cite the aberration amid diminutive accumulation and diminutive weight.
(b)Silicon has three naturally-occurring isotopes as apparent in the table below. On the base of this data, affirm that the boilerplate diminutive weight of Si is 28. 0854 amu.
The diminutive accumulation of isotope (AMU)
92. 23 %
4. 68 %
3. 09 %
(a)Cite two important quantum-mechanical concepts associated with the Bohr archetypal of the atom.
(b)Cite two important added refinements that resulted from the wave-mechanical diminutive model.
3. Relative to electrons and electron states, what does anniversary of the four breakthrough numbers specify?
4. Give the electron configurations for the afterward ions: P5+, P3-, Sn4+, Se2-, I- and Ni2+.
5. Potassium iodide (KI) exhibits predominantly ionic bonding.
The K+ and I- ions accept electron structures that are identical to which two apathetic gases?
6. Without consulting the alternate table, actuate whether anniversary of the electron configurations accustomed beneath is an apathetic gas, a halogen, an acrid metal, an acrid apple metal, or a alteration metal. Justify your choices.
7. Calculate the force of allure amid a Ca2+ and an O2- ion, the centers of which are afar by a ambit of 1. 5 nm.
8. The net abeyant activity amid two adjoining ions, EN, may be represented by the sum of the adorable energy, EA and the abhorrent energy, ER; Calculate the bonding activity E0 in agreement of the ambit A, B, and n application the afterward procedure: Differentiate EN with account to r, and again set the consistent announcement according to zero, back the ambit of EN against r is a minimum at E0. Solve for r in agreement of A, B, and n, which yields r0, the calm interionic spacing. Actuate the announcement for EN by barter of r0 into Equation Q2.
9. For a Na+ – Cl- ion pair, adorable and abhorrent energies EA and ER, respectively, depending on the ambit amid the ions r, according to for these expressions, energies are bidding in electron volts per Na+ – Cl- pair, and r is the ambit in nanometers. The net activity EN is aloof the sum of the two expressions above.
a) Superimpose on a distinct artifice EN, ER, and EA against r up to 1. 0 nm.
b) On the base of this plot, determine
c) the calm agreement r0 amid the Na+ and Cl- ions, and
d) the consequence of the bonding activity amid the two ions.
e) Mathematically actuate the r0 and E0 ethics application the solutions to Question 8 and analyze these with the graphical after-effects from allotment (b).
(a)Briefly adduce the capital aberration amid ionic, covalent, and brownish bonding.
(b)State the Pauli exclusion principle.
11. Compute the allotment ionic appearance of the interatomic band for anniversary of the afterward compounds: MgO, GaP, CsF, CdS, and FeO.
12. What types of bonding would be accepted for anniversary of the afterward materials: solid xenon, calcium fluoride (CaF2), bronze, cadmium telluride (CdTe), rubber, and tungsten?
13. Explain why hydrogen fluoride (HF) has a college baking temperature than hydrogen chloride (HCl) (19. 4(C vs. -85(C), alike admitting HF has a lower atomic weight.
14. Explain why covalently affirmed abstracts are about beneath close than ionically or metallically affirmed ones. Asia Pacific University College of Technology and Innovation.
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