Anatomy and Physiology: Practice Test
A and P II Affiliate 24 convenance analysis 1. Which of the afterward digestive regions is amenable for the propulsion of abstracts into the esophagus? Answer: pharynx 2. The alive action that occurs back abstracts access the digestive amplitude via the aperture is: Answer: assimilation 3. Sympathetic dispatch of the muscularis externa promotes: Answer: able-bodied inhibition and alleviation 4. Which of the afterward statements about peritonitis is false? Answer: It leads to deepening of the digestive mucosa. 5.
Which of the afterward aloft layers of the digestive amplitude is declared as a band of close aberrant affiliation tissue abounding with claret argosy and the abdomen of Meissner? Answer: submucosa 6. Able contractions of the ascendance and axle colon affective the accommodation of the colon adjoin the arced colon are called: Answer: accumulation peristalsis 7. Which of the afterward salivary glands aftermath salivary amylase, a carbohydrate-digesting enzyme? Answer: 1. parotid glands 2. sublingual glands 8. Which of the afterward is not a action of saliva?
Answer: antecedent assimilation of proteins 9. The three pairs of salivary glands that bury into the articulate atrium include: Answer: parotid, sublingual, and submandibular 10. Crushing, mashing, and acerbic of aliment are best able by the action of the: Answer: bicuspids 11. The three phases of deglutition are: Answer: buccal, pharyngeal, and esophageal 12. On its way to the esophagus, aliment commonly passes through the: Answer: oropharynx and laryngopharynx 13. The pharyngeal anatomy that advance the aliment bolus adjoin the esophagus are the: Answer: pharyngeal constrictor anatomy 14.
Solid aliment and liquids are agitated from the pharyngeal arena to the abdomen by the: Answer: laryngopharynx 15. The inferior end of the esophagus commonly charcoal in a accompaniment of alive abbreviating that: Answer: prevents the abatement of abstracts from the abdomen into the esophagus 16. The contractions of the abdomen are inhibited by: Answer: secretin 17. Which of the afterward is buried by the stomach? Answer: gastrin 18. The analysis of the baby civil that contains the Brunner glands is the: Answer: duodenum 19. An agitator not begin in pancreatic abstract is: Answer: disaccharidase 20.
Bile entering the gallbladder charge canyon through the: Answer: cystic aqueduct 21. The hormone that promotes the breeze of acerbity and of pancreatic abstract absolute enzymes is: Answer: cholecystokinin 22. The longitudinal award of bland beef arresting on the alien surfaces of the colon aloof beneath the serosa are the: Answer: taenia coli 23. The vermiform addendum is bedeviled by what blazon of aqueous structures in the film and submucosa? Answer: lymphoid nodules 24. The vitamins absolved by bacterial action and captivated in the ample civil are: Answer: biotin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin K 25.
Which of the afterward amoebic nutrients are not captivated by capillaries in the belly villi? Answer: lipids 26. The nutrients that can be captivated afterwards basal processing but may absorb adapted carriage mechanisms are: Answer: water, electrolytes, and vitamins 27. The agitator lactase, which digests lactose to glucose and galactose, is actinic by: Answer: the abdomen 28. Hydrochloric acerbic in the abdomen functions primarily to: Answer: facilitate lipid assimilation 29. The belly epithelium absorbs monosaccharides by: Answer: facilitated circulation and cotransport mechanisms 30.
When two fluids are afar by a selectively absorbent membrane, baptize tends to breeze into the band-aid that has the: Answer: college assimilation of solutes 31. An absurdity in burning could best acceptable be detected by the: Answer: larynx 32. Abounding belly bland beef networks appearance adroit cycles of action in the absence of neural dispatch due to the attendance of: Answer: baton beef that spontaneously depolarize and actuate abbreviating of absolute able-bodied bedding 33. The acumen a absolutely dry aliment bolus cannot be swallowed is: Answer: chafe with the walls of the esophagus makes peristalsis abortive 34.
Gastric glands, which aftermath best of the belly juice, are abounding in which of the afterward regions of the stomach? Answer: A and B. a. fundus. b. anatomy 35. The two factors that comedy an important allotment in the movement of chyme from the abdomen to the baby civil are: Answer: abdomen amplification and gastrin absolution 36. The plicae of the belly mucosa, which bears the belly villi, are structural appearance that accommodate for: Answer: added absolute credible breadth for assimilation 37. The enteroendocrine beef of the belly crypts are amenable for bearing the belly hormones: Answer: cholecystokinin and secretin 8. Villikinin, motilin, and somatostatin are produced in the: Answer: baby civil 39. The primary function(s) of the gastrointestinal abstract is (are) to: Answer: all of the above. a. bathe the chyme. b. abetment in buffering acids. c. deliquesce digestive enzymes and articles of assimilation 40. An actual access in the ante of glandular beard and peristaltic action in all segments of the baby civil are a aftereffect of the: Answer: gastroenteric reflex 41. The primary aftereffect of secretin is to account a(n): Answer: access in beard of baptize and buffers by the pancreas and the alarmist 42.
The peptide hormone that causes the absolution of insulin from the pancreatic islets is: Answer: GIP 43. How does the film of the rectum analyze with that of the colon and cecum? Answer: The colon and cecum are lined with a simple columnar epithelium for absorption, admitting the rectum is lined with stratified squamous epithelium because it is abutting to an aperture to the exterior. 44. The able-bodied sphincter that guards the access amid the ileum and the cecum is the: Answer: ileocecal valve 45. Which produces the atomic cardinal of contractions to force aliment through the digestive amplitude on a circadian basis?
Answer: ample civil 46. The boilerplate agreement of the begrimed decay actual is: Answer: 75% water; 5% bacteria; 20% boxy materials, asleep matter, and epithelial charcoal 47. The hormone gastrin: Answer: increases the action of parietal and arch beef 48. The two absolute acknowledgment loops circuitous in the defecation reflex are: Answer: amplitude receptors in belly walls, and the sacral parasympathetic arrangement 49. The 'doorway to the liver' (porta hepatis) is a circuitous that includes the: Answer: acerbity duct, hepatic aperture vein, and hepatic avenue 50.
Triglycerides coated with proteins actualize a circuitous accepted as a: Answer: chylomicron End of affiliate Questions 1. The enzymatic breakdown of ample molecules into their basal architecture blocks is called: • (d)chemical digestion. 2. The alien band of the digestive amplitude is accepted as the: •(a)serosa. 3. Double bedding of abdominals that accommodate abutment and adherence for the organs of the peritoneal atrium are the: • (d)mesenteries. 4. A annex of the aperture vein, hepatic artery, and accent of the acerbity aqueduct anatomy • (c)a aperture area. 5. Label the digestive arrangement structures in the afterward figure. a) articulate cavity, teeth, tongue; (b) liver; (c) gallbladder; (d) pancreas; (e) ample intestine; (f) salivary glands; (g) pharynx; (h) esophagus; (i) stomach; (j) baby intestine; (k) anus 6. Label the four layers of the digestive amplitude in the afterward figure. (a) mucosa; (b) submucosa; (c) muscularis externa; (d) serosa 7. Best of the digestive amplitude is lined by ___________ epithelium. e. simple columnar. 8. Bounded movements that action in the baby civil and action to agitate and fragment the digestive actual are called: (a. )segmentation. 9.
Bile absolution from the gallbladder into the duodenum occurs alone beneath the dispatch of: (a. )cholecystokinin. 10. Label the three segments of the baby civil in the afterward figure. (a) duodenum; (b) jejunum; (c) ileum. 11. The aloft function(s) of the ample civil is (are): (a. )reabsorption of baptize and compaction of feces. (b. )absorption of vitamins absolved by bacterial action. (c. )storage of begrimed actual above-mentioned to defecation. (d. )a, b, and c. 12. Vitamins generated by bacilli in the colon are: (c)vitamin K, biotin, and pantothenic acid. 13.
The final enzymatic accomplish in the digestive action are able by: (a. ) besom bound enzymes of the microvilli. 14. What are the six accomplish of digestion? Assimilation involves (1. ) ingestion; (2. ) automated processing; (3. ) secretion; (4. ) assimilation (conversion into a anatomy accessible by cells); (5. ) absorption; and (6. ) excretion. 15. Name and alarm the layers of the digestive tract, proceeding from the centermost band to the exoteric layer. Layers of the digestive amplitude are (1. ) the mucosa: the epithelial band that performs actinic assimilation and assimilation of nutrients; (2. the submucosa: the affiliation tissue band absolute aqueous and claret argosy and the submucosal assumption plexus; (3. ) the muscularis externa: the bland beef band absolute the myenteric assumption plexus; and (4. ) the serosa: the exoteric layer, epithelium and affiliation tissue that forms the belly abdominals (or affiliation tissue that forms the adventitia). 16. What three basal mechanisms adapt the activities of the digestive tract? Activities of the digestive amplitude are acclimatized by neural, hormonal, and bounded mechanisms. 17.
What are the three phases of swallowing, and how are they controlled? The three phases of swallowing—the buccal, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases—are controlled by the burning centermost of the medulla oblongata via the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal cranial nerves. The motor commands basic at the burning centermost are broadcast by cranial fretfulness V, IX, X, and XII. Forth the esophagus, primary peristaltic contractions are accommodating by afferent and deviating fibers aural the glossopharyngeal and vagus cranial nerves, but accent peristaltic contractions action in the absence of CNS instructions. 8. What are the primary digestive functions of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder? The pancreas provides digestive enzymes, added bicarbonate ions that drag the pH of the chyme. The alarmist produces acerbity and is additionally the primary agency circuitous in acclimation the agreement of circulating blood. The gallbladder aliment and releases bile, which contains added buffers and acerbity salts that facilitate the assimilation and assimilation of lipids. 19. Which hormones produced by belly enteroendocrine beef finer alike digestive functions?
The hormones accommodate the following: enterocrinin, which stimulates the submucosal glands of the duodenum; secretin, which stimulates the pancreas and alarmist to access the beard of baptize and bicarbonate ions; cholecystokinin (CCK), which causes an access in the absolution of pancreatic secretions and acerbity into the duodenum, inhibits belly activity, and appears to accept CNS furnishings that abate the awareness of hunger; belly inhibitory peptide (GIP), which stimulates insulin absolution at pancreatic islets and the action of the belly submucosal glands; vasoactive ntestinal peptide (VIP), which stimulates the beard of belly glands, dilates bounded capillaries, and inhibits acerbic assembly in the stomach; gastrin, which is buried by G beef in the duodenum back they are credible to ample quantities of clumsily digested proteins; and, in baby quantities, motilin, which stimulates belly contractions, villikinin, which promotes the movement of villi and associated lymph flow, and somatostatin, which inhibits belly secretion. 20.
What are the three primary functions of the ample intestine? The ample civil reabsorbs baptize and compacts the belly accommodation into feces, absorbs important vitamins absolved by bacterial action, and aliment begrimed actual above-mentioned to defecation. 21. What two absolute acknowledgment loops are circuitous in the defecation reflex? Absolute acknowledgment loops in the defecation reflex absorb (1. ) amplitude receptors in the belly walls, which advance a alternation of peristaltic contractions in the colon and rectum, affective carrion adjoin the anus; and (2. the sacral parasympathetic system, additionally activated by the amplitude receptors, which stimulates peristalsis via motor commands broadcast by the pelvic nerves. 22. During defecation, (a. )stretch receptors in the belly bank admit a alternation of peristaltic contractions in the colon and rectum. (b. )stretch receptors in the belly bank actuate parasympathetic centers in the sacral arena of the analgesic cord. (e. )only a and b occur. 23. Added parasympathetic dispatch of the civil would aftereffect in: (e. )none of these. 24. A bead in pH beneath 4. 5 in the duodenum stimulates the beard of (a)secretin. 5. Through which layers of a molar would an articulate surgeon assignment to accomplish a base aqueduct (removal of the alveolar assumption in a acutely damaged tooth)? A base aqueduct involves conduct through the apply and the dentin. 26. How is the epithelium of the abdomen adequate from digestion? The abdomen is adequate from assimilation by close secretions of its epithelial lining and by neural and hormonal ascendancy over the times and ante of acerbic secretion. 27. How does anniversary of the three phases of belly beard advance and facilitate belly control? (1. ) The cephalic appearance of belly beard egins with the afterimage or anticipation of food. Directed by the CNS, this appearance prepares the abdomen to accept food. (2. ) The belly appearance begins with the accession of aliment in the stomach; this appearance is able by amplification of the stomach, an access in the pH of the belly contents, and the attendance of undigested abstracts in the stomach. (3. ) The belly appearance begins back chyme starts to access the baby intestine. This appearance controls the bulk of belly elimination and ensures that the secretory, digestive, and absorptive functions of the baby civil can advance analytic efficiently. 8. Nutritionists accept begin that afterwards a abundant meal, the pH of claret increases slightly, abnormally in the veins that backpack claret abroad from the stomach. What causes this “postenteric acrid tide”? Afterwards a abundant meal, bicarbonate ions canyon from the parietal beef of the abdomen into the extracellular fluid, causing the pH of the extracellular aqueous to rise. As the extracellular aqueous exchanges ions with the blood, the claret pH additionally increases. 29. Some bodies with gallstones advance pancreatitis. How could this occur?
If a gallstone is baby enough, it can canyon through the accepted acerbity aqueduct and block the pancreatic duct. Enzymes from the pancreas again cannot adeptness the baby intestine. As the enzymes accumulate, they abrade the aqueduct and ultimately the exocrine pancreas, bearing pancreatitis. 30. Harry is adversity from an obstruction in his colon. He notices that back he urinates, the blush of his urine is abundant darker than normal, and he wonders if there is any accord amid the blush of his urine and his belly obstruction. What would you acquaint him?
The darker blush of his urine is apparently due to added amounts of the colorant urobilin, which gives urine its accustomed chicken color. Urobilin is acquired from urobilinogen, which is formed in the ample civil by the action of belly bacilli on acerbity pigments. In an belly obstruction, the acerbity pigments cannot be alone by their accustomed route, so a larger-than-normal bulk diffuses into the blood, breadth it is alone by the kidneys. 31. A action accepted as lactose bent is characterized by aching belly cramping, gas, and diarrhea.
The account of the botheration is an disability to abstract the milk sugar, lactose. How would this account the empiric signs and symptoms? If an alone cannot abstract lactose, this amoroso passes into the ample civil in an undigested form. The attendance of added amoroso in the chyme increases its osmolarity, so beneath baptize is reabsorbed by the belly mucosa. The bacilli that abide the ample civil can metabolize the lactose, and in the action they aftermath ample amounts of carbon dioxide.
This gas overstretches the intestine, which stimulates bounded reflexes that access peristalsis. The aggregate of more-fluid accommodation and added peristalsis causes diarrhea. The overexpansion of the civil by gas, which is anon accompanying to added gas assembly by the bacteria, causes the astringent affliction and belly cramping. 32. Recently, added bodies accept angry to anaplasty to advice them lose weight. One anatomy of weight ascendancy anaplasty involves stapling a allocation of the abdomen shut, creating a abate volume. How would such a anaplasty aftereffect in weight loss?
The primary aftereffect of such surgeries would be a abridgement in the aggregate of aliment (and appropriately in the bulk of calories) captivated because the being feels abounding afterwards bistro a baby amount. This can aftereffect in cogent weight loss. CheckPoints Page 882 1. Identify the organs of the digestive system. Organs of the digestive arrangement accommodate the esophagus, stomach, baby intestine, ample intestine, and accent organs (salivary glands, liver, and pancreas). 2. List and ascertain the six primary functions of the digestive system.
The six primary functions of the digestive arrangement accommodate the following: (1) assimilation = carefully bistro food; (2) automated processing = crushing and shearing aliment to accomplish them added afflicted to enzymatic attack; (3) assimilation = the actinic breakdown of aliment into abate articles for absorption; (4) beard = the absolution of water, acids, and alternative substances by the epithelium of the digestive amplitude and by glandular organs; (5) assimilation = movement of digested particles beyond the digestive epithelium and into the interstitial aqueous of the digestive tract; and (6) elimination = the abatement of decay articles from the body. . What is the accent of the mesenteries? The mesenteries—sheets consisting of two layers of aqueous film afar by apart affiliation tissue—support and balance the organs in the abdominopelvic atrium and accommodate a avenue for the associated claret vessels, nerves, and aqueous vessels. 4. Name the layers of the gastrointestinal amplitude from credible to deep. The layers of the gastrointestinal tract, from credible to deep, are the serosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, and film (adjacent to the lumen). 5.
Which is added able in affective belly accommodation from one abode to another: peristalsis or segmentation? The after-effects of contractions that aggregate peristalsis are added able in affective belly accommodation than segmentation, which is basically a churning action that mixes belly accommodation with digestive fluids. 6. What aftereffect would a biologic that blocks parasympathetic dispatch of the digestive amplitude accept on peristalsis? A biologic that blocks parasympathetic stimulation, which increases beef accent and action in the digestive tract, would apathetic peristalsis. Page 888 7.
Name the structures associated with the articulate cavity. Structures associated with the articulate atrium accommodate the tongue, salivary glands, and teeth. 8. Which blazon of epithelium curve the articulate cavity? The articulate atrium is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium, which provides aegis adjoin chafe or chafe by foodstuffs. 9. The assimilation of which comestible would be afflicted by accident to the parotid salivary glands? Accident to the parotid salivary glands, which bury the carbohydrate-digesting agitator salivary amylase, would baffle with the assimilation of circuitous carbohydrates. 10.
Which blazon of tooth is best advantageous for chopping off $.25 of almost adamant foods? The incisors are the teeth best ill-fitted for chopping (or acerbic or shearing) pieces of almost adamant food, such as raw vegetables. 11. Breadth absolutely in the animal anatomy is the fauces? The fauces is the adding band amid the articulate atrium and the pharynx. 12. Alarm the anatomy and action of the pharynx. The pharynx is an anatomical amplitude that receives a aliment bolus or liquids and passes them to the esophagus as allotment of the burning process. 13. Identify the anatomy associated with the pharynx.
Muscles associated with the pharynx are pharyngeal constrictor muscles, the palatopharyngeus and stylopharyngeus muscles, and palatal muscles. Page 890 14. Name the anatomy abutting the pharynx to the stomach. The anatomy abutting the pharynx to the abdomen is the esophagus. 15. Compared to alternative segments of the digestive tract, what is abnormal about the muscularis externa of the esophagus? The muscularis externa of the esophagus is an abnormal articulation of the digestive amplitude because it (1) contains ashen beef beef forth best of the breadth of the esophagus and (2) is amidst by an adventitia rather than a serosa. 6. What is occurring back the bendable aficionado and larynx drag and the glottis closes? Back the bendable aficionado and larynx drag and the glottis closes, burning (deglutition) is occurring. Page 897 17. Name the four aloft regions of the stomach. The four regions of the abdomen are the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. 18. Discuss the acceptation of the low pH in the stomach. The low pH of the abdomen creates an acerb ambiance that kills best bacilli ingested with food, denatures proteins and inactivates best enzymes in food, helps breach bottomward bulb corpuscle walls and meat affiliation tissue, and activates pepsin. 9. How does a ample meal affect the pH of claret abrogation the stomach? Ample (especially protein-containing) commons activate added abdomen acerbic secretion. Because the hydrogen ions of abdomen acerbic appear from claret entering the stomach, claret abrogation the abdomen will accept beneath hydrogen ions and appropriately a college pH. This abnormality is referred to as the acrid tide. 20. Back a being suffers from abiding belly ulcers, the branches of the vagus fretfulness that serve the abdomen are sometimes cut in an attack to accommodate relief. Why adeptness this be an able treatment?
The vagus fretfulness accommodate parasympathetic motor fibers that can activate belly secretions, alike if aliment is not present in the abdomen (the cephalic appearance of belly digestion). Acerbic the branches of the vagus fretfulness that accumulation the abdomen would anticipate this blazon of beard from occurring and thereby abate the likelihood of abscess formation. Page 910 21. Name the three regions of the baby civil from adjoining to distal. The three regions of the baby civil are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. 22. How is the baby civil acclimatized for the assimilation of nutrients?
The baby civil has several adaptations that access its credible breadth and appropriately its absorptive capacity. The walls of the baby civil are befuddled into folds, the plicae circulares. The tissue that covers the plicae circulares forms fingerlike projections, the villi. The beef that awning the villi accept an credible apparent covered by baby fingerlike projections, the microvilli. In addition, the baby civil has a actual affluent accumulation of claret argosy and aqueous vessels, which carriage the nutrients that are absorbed. 23. Does a high-fat meal accession or lower the akin of cholecystokinin in the blood?
A high-fat meal would accession the cholecystokinin akin in the blood. 24. How would the pH of the belly accommodation be afflicted if the baby civil did not aftermath secretin? The hormone secretin, amid alternative things, stimulates the pancreas to absolution aqueous aerial in buffers to abrogate the chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach. If the baby civil did not bury secretin, the pH of the belly accommodation would be lower than normal. 25. The assimilation of which comestible would be best broken by accident to the exocrine pancreas?
Damage to the exocrine pancreas would best blemish the assimilation of fats (lipids), because it is the primary antecedent of lipases. Alike admitting such accident would additionally abate carbohydrate and protein digestion, enzymes for digesting these nutrients are produced by alternative digestive arrangement structures, including the salivary glands (carbohydrates), the baby civil (carbohydrates and proteins), and the abdomen (proteins). Page 916 26. Identify the four regions of the colon. The four regions of the colon are the ascendance colon, axle colon, bottomward colon, and arced colon. 27.
What are some aloft histological differences amid the ample civil and the baby intestine? The ample civil is beyond in bore than the baby intestine, but its almost attenuate bank lacks villi and has an affluence of close beef and belly glands. 28. Differentiate amid haustral churning and accumulation movements. In accumulation movements, which action a few times per day throughout the axle colon and the distal portions of the ample intestine, able peristaltic contractions move actual forth the breadth of the colon. In haustral churning, analysis movements mix the accommodation of adjoining haustra.
Page 921 29. What kinds of nutrients does the anatomy require? Nutrients adapted by the anatomy are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. 30. What basic of aliment would access the cardinal of chylomicrons in the lacteals? Because chylomicrons are formed from the fats digested in a meal, fats access the cardinal of chylomicrons in the lacteals. 31. The assimilation of which vitamin would be broken by the abatement of the stomach? Abatement of the abdomen would baffle with the assimilation of vitamin B12, a action that requires built-in factor, produced by the parietal beef of the stomach. 2. Why is it that diarrhea is potentially action threatening, but ache is not? Back an alone with diarrhea loses aqueous and electrolytes faster than they can be replaced, the consistent aridity can be fatal. Although ache can be absolutely uncomfortable, it does not baffle with any life-supporting processes; the few baneful decay articles commonly alone by the digestive arrangement can move into the claret and be alone by the kidneys. Page 922 33. Identify accepted digestive arrangement changes that action with aging.
General age-related digestive arrangement changes accommodate decreased secretory mechanisms, decreased belly and belly motility, decreased mitotic action of epithelial cells, and accident of tone; accumulative accident becomes added apparent, blight ante increase, and aridity occurs as a aftereffect of decreased osmoreceptor sensitivity. 34. Identify the anatomic relationships amid the digestive arrangement and alternative anatomy systems. The digestive arrangement absorbs the amoebic substrates, vitamins, ions, and baptize adapted by beef of all alternative anatomy systems. 35. What anatomy systems may be afflicted by bare calcium absorption?
The skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems may all be afflicted by bare assimilation of calcium. Analysis Questions Labeling 1. Label the afterward histological structures of the digestive amplitude from the angel of the baby civil section. 1. 1 myenteric abdomen D. 1. 2 submucosal gland A. 1. 3mucosa B. 1. 4serosa (visceral peritoneum) E. 1. 5 submucosa F. 1. 6muscularis externa C. 2. bout the agreement with the adapted regions and structures of the stomach. 2. 1 fundus D. 2. 2 angled beef band above film E. 2. 3circular beef band B. 2. 4cardia C. 2. rugae F. 2. 6pyloric sphincter A. 3. Correctly bout the agreement with the adapted structures of the alarmist lobule. 3. 1 axial attitude B. 3. 2 hepatocytes A. 3. 3 acerbity aqueduct F. 3. 4 acerbity canaliculi E. 3. 5sinusoid C. 3. 6Kupffer beef D. Analogous 1. Put the afterward structures circuitous in acerbity carriage in the able order, from the alarmist to the gallbladder and on to the baby intestine, by analogous them (1) through (6): Acerbity canaliculi Acerbity ductules Right and larboard hepatic ducts Accepted hepatic ducts Cystic aqueduct Accepted acerbity aqueduct 2. Bout the afterward beef and glands with their actual products: 2. Parietal corpuscle HCl 2. 2Chief corpuscle . Pepsinogen 2. 3G beef Gastrin 2. 4Intestinal glands Cholecystokinin 2. 5Brunner glands Urogastrone 3. Bout the afterward substrates and articles with the agitator that catalyzes the reaction: 3. 1 Proteins to short-chain polypeptides . Pepsin 3. 2Dipeptides and tripeptides to amino acids Exopeptidase 3. 3trypsinogen to trypsin Enterokinase 3. 4A disaccharide to monosaccharides . Lactase 4. Bout the afterward belly hormones to their actual functions: 4. 1Gastrin . This stimulates of added action in the abdomen and the assembly of acids and enzymes. . 2Gastric inhibitory peptide . Buried back fats and abnormally glucose enters the intestine, this agitator triggers the absolution of insulin at the pancreas. 4. 3Cholecystokinin This is buried back chyme is affluent in lipids and partially digested proteins. It triggers the aperture of the hepatopancreatic sphincter. 4. 4 Enterocrinin . This is appear back chyme enters the baby civil and it stimulates mucin production. 5. Bout the agency of the digestive arrangement with its function: 5. 1Mastication of aliment . Teeth 5. 2Carries solid foods and liquids to the abdomen . Esophagus . 3Bulk accumulator of ingested food, actinic and automated breakdown of ingested food, and assembly of the built-in agency . Abdomen 5. 4Digestion and assimilation of nutrients . Baby civil 5. 5Reabsorption of water, assimilation of important vitamins, and accumulator of begrimed bulk . Ample civil 5. 6 Temporary accumulator of begrimed bulk . Rectum Assorted Best 1. Which of the afterward is a action of the digestive tract? Answer: a. Assimilation b. Assimilation c. Elimination d. Assimilation 2. From the alfresco in, the actual adjustment of the layers of the digestive amplitude is Answer: erosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, mucosa. 3. The movements of the muscularis externa are accommodating by the Answer: myenteric plexus. 4. After-effects of bland beef abbreviating that actuate abstracts forth the digestive amplitude are alleged Answer: peristalsis. 5. The mesentery that hangs like an accent from the crabbed and inferior allocation of the abdomen is the Answer: greater omentum. 6. The articulate frenulum Answer: a. connects the argot to the attic of the articulate cavity. b. is a attenuate bend of close membrane. c. may charge to be cut if the action of ankyloglossia exists. 7. Incisors are acclimated for Answer: lipping or cutting. 8. The film and submucosa of the esophagus are bankrupt for Answer: to acquiesce the amplification of the esophagus during the access of a ample bolus. 9. Which of the afterward is a action of the stomach? Answer: a. Automated breakdown of aliment b. Assembly of built-in agency 10. Arch beef bury Answer: pepsinogen. 11. Back the abdomen is empty, the film is befuddled into folds alleged Answer: rugae. 12. Back you airing into a Mexican restaurant and balm the agreeable balm of fajitas, which appearance of belly action is triggered? Answer: Cephalic appearance 13. Peyer patches Answer: re lymphoid nodules amid in the ileum. 14. The bank of the baby civil bears a alternation of folds alleged the Answer: plicae circulares. 15. The duodenum differs from the blow of the baby civil in that its submucosa contains abounding __________ that bury mucus. Answer: Brunner glands 16. The gastroenteric reflex stimulates action Answer: forth the absolute breadth of the baby intestine. 17. Sympathetic dispatch Answer: inhibits submucosal glands. 18. Concentrated crystals of minerals and salts in the gallbladder aftermath Answer: a action alleged cholelithiasis. 19. Pancreatic abstract is
Answer: alkaline. 20. Which of the afterward is not a action of the liver? Answer: Immunologic adjustment 21. Alarmist cells, or hepatocytes, accept claret from the Answer: a)hepatic artery. b)hepatic aperture vein. 22. Acerbity acts as a(n) Answer: emulsifier. 23. The defecation reflex Answer: a. involves continued and abbreviate reflexes. b. involves two absolute acknowledgment loops. 24. The ample civil absorbs which of the afterward vitamins from colonic bacteria? Answer: a. Biotin b. Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acerbic c. Vitamin K 25. Fat-soluble vitamins move beyond the belly film by Answer: iffusion. Accurate and Apocryphal 1. The pharynx belongs to both the respiratory and digestive systems. Answer: Accurate As air is inhaled it passes through the pharynx into the trachea, and as aliment is swallowed it passes through the pharynx into the esophagus. 2. Cuspids are acerbic or abridgement teeth. Answer: Apocryphal Incisors are acerbic or abridgement teeth. 3. A bead in the pH of the chyme advancing from the abdomen triggers the absolution of CCK. Answer: Apocryphal CCK is a hormone appear back chyme is abounding of blubbery acids and triglycerides. 4. The haustra are formed by abbreviating of the taenia coli.
Answer: Accurate Amplification and addendum of the colon is able by haustra; how do the haustra aggrandize and elongate? 5. The arena of the tooth amid the acme and the base is alleged the gingival space. Answer: Apocryphal The gingival amplitude is amid the gum and the tooth. Fill In the Blank 1. The muscularis externa propels abstracts from one allocation of the digestive amplitude to the alternative by a alternation of wavelike contractions alleged peristalsis, while in best areas of the baby civil ___ analysis _______ movements agitate and fragment digestive materials. 2.
Pancreatic abstract is buried by units accepted as pancreatic ____ acini ______. 3. ___ Peptidases _______ are proteolytic enzymes that breach baby peptide chains into amino acids. 4. The axle folds that accomplish up the belly lining and accommodate added credible breadth for assimilation are alleged __ plicae ________. 5. The glycoprotein __ built-in agency ________, all-important for vitamin B12 absorption, is produced in the stomach. Assorted Best 2 1. The band of the digestive amplitude that contains ample claret vessels, lymphatics, and a arrangement of assumption fibers alleged the abdomen of Meissner is the Answer: ubmucosa. 2. Anniversary of the afterward articles of assimilation is taken up by capillaries in the baby civil except one. Identify the exception. Answer: Chylomicrons 3. Which of the afterward statements is apocryphal apropos the teeth? Answers: Dentin, the actual that makes up the apply of the teeth, is a blazon of absorptive bone, appropriately giving the tooth its hardness. A band of a actual alleged cementum covers the dentin of the base and attaches the tooth to the periodontal ligament. 4. Which salivary glands aftermath a blubbery aqueous beard absolute ample amounts of salivary amylase? Answer: Parotid glands . Which blazon of tooth is conical with a acicular tip and acclimated for disturbing and slashing? Answer: Cuspids or canines 6. During the pharyngeal appearance of deglutition Answer: the larynx elevates and the uvula and bendable aficionado block the nasopharynx. 7. Which of the afterward statements is apocryphal apropos crumbling and the digestive system? Answer: Aridity becomes beneath accepted as a aftereffect of the body's disability to finer rid itself of water. 8. Which of the afterward is not a pancreatic enzyme? Answer: Pepsinogen 9. Which of the afterward statements is apocryphal apropos the Kupffer beef of the liver?
Answer: Kupffer beef accept the adeptness to aftermath bile. 10. Of the 1,500 mL of actual that enters the ample civil on a circadian basis, about how abundant baptize in the actual is reabsorbed? Answer: 1,200 mL 11. During the defecation reflex Answer: parasympathetic centers in the sacral arena of the analgesic bond activate accumulation movements. 12. Anniversary of the afterward is a besom bound agitator except one. Identify the exception. Answer: Amylase 13. Blubbery acids and monoglycerides collaborate with the acerbity salts in chyme to anatomy small, lipid-bile alkali complexes alleged Answer: micelles. 4. Peyer patches are associated with which arena of the intestine? Answer: Ileum Peyer patches are aggregates of lymphoid tissue begin in the ileum. 15. Analysis for a morbidly adipose man includes anaplasty to abate the breadth of his intestine. Which arena of the baby civil should be removed to accomplish greatest weight loss? Answer: Jejunum The jejunum is amenable for the majority of actinic assimilation and comestible absorption. Breadth 2: Concept Analysis Now let's see what you accept abstruse about Assimilation and Absorption. I will accord you a catechism and two accessible answers.
Then I will abeyance while you accede the choices and baddest your answer. Afterwards a few seconds, I will accord you the actual acknowledgment with an explanation. Catechism 1 Enzymes and buffers are advised allotment of which blazon of digestion? Is it A) automated or B) chemical? The acknowledgment is B) chemical. Automated assimilation involves mixing, churning, and chewing. Catechism 2 What do we alarm movement of aliment afterwards administration in the digestive tract? Is it A) peristalsis or B) segmentation? The acknowledgment is B) segmentation. Peristalsis is the movement of aliment advanced through the digestive tract. Catechism 3 Breadth does aloft assimilation of aliment substances occur?
Is it in A) the abdomen or B) the baby intestine? The acknowledgment is B) the baby intestine. Almost all assimilation occurs in the baby intestine. Catechism 4 Which blazon of agitator digests carbohydrates? Is it A) amylase or B) peptidase? The acknowledgment is A) amylase. Peptidase break bottomward proteins. Catechism 5 Which ancillary of the epithelial beef lining the digestive amplitude faces in appear the lumen? Is it A) aciculate or B) basal? The acknowledgment is A) apical. The basal credible fuses the beef to the abysmal tissues. Catechism 6 What is the appellation for emulsified, digested lipids? Is it A) chylomicrons or B) micelles? The acknowledgment is B) micelles.
Chylomicrons are cholesterol-fat complexes that accept a protein coating. Catechism 7 Which allocation of the baby civil serves as a bond basin for substances from the pancreas, liver, and stomach? Is it A) the duodenum or B) the ileum? The acknowledgment is A) the duodenum. As the aliment enters the baby intestines, enzymes, buffers, and acerbity additionally access at the duodenum Catechism 8 In which allotment of your digestive arrangement is best of the baptize reabsorbed? Is it A) the colon or B) the baby intestine? The acknowledgment is B) the baby intestine. Up to ninety-five percent of the baptize entering the digestive amplitude is captivated here.
That's the end of this section. Breadth 3: Rapid Analysis Now we will do a quick set of analysis questions on Assimilation and Absorption. I will accord you a catechism and again alone a brace of abnormal to accord your answer. Afterwards a abrupt pause, I will accord you the actual answer. Let's alpha with some accurate or apocryphal questions. Catechism 1 Accurate or false? Acerbity is produced by the gallbladder. Answer: Apocryphal Catechism 2 Accurate or False? Once aliment is digested in the stomach, it is alleged chyme. Answer: Accurate Catechism 3 A chylomicron is an archetype of a digested protein. Answer: Apocryphal Okay, now let's try some assorted best questions. Catechism 4
Which actuality is captivated through the belly lining? Is it A) monosaccharides or B) nucleic acids? Answer: A) monosaccharides Catechism 5 What is the appellation for breaking bottomward lipids? Is it A) lipogenesis or B) emulsification? Answer: B) emulsification Great! Now let's try some abbreviate acknowledgment questions. Catechism 6 Which accent agency produces amylases, lipases, buffers, and hormones? Answer: The pancreas Catechism 7 Best of the fat assimilation occurs in which allotment of the baby intestine? Answer: The ileum Catechism 8 Breadth does the action of actinic assimilation start? Answer: In the aperture That's the end of this section.
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