An Introduction to the Im Profession and Ethics Paper
De La Salle University - Manila An Introduction to the IM Profession and Ethics Paper Presented to The Faculty of the College of Computer Studies De La University – Manila In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science of Advice Systems By: Changcoco, Amos Dimla, Ysabel Nicole Ramchand, Pavan Tanchuling, Bianca Denise Tibayan, Jan Michael 1. 0 COMPUTER AND INTERNET CRIME 1. 1 Types of Exploits 1. 1. 1Virus It is a awful cipher that is absorbed to a book or executable affairs that can drudge the files of the victim’s computer and reformat, annul or adapt the files.
The virus is accomplished alone aback the book that contains the virus is opened or if the affairs with the virus is accomplished as well. It leaves infections as it campaign from one computer to another. The advance of the virus relies on the users whenever users would use disposable media devices, download or through e-mails. An archetype of a computer virus would be the Pikachu virus which was the aboriginal computer virus directed to children. It was said that the virus started on June 28, 2000 from Asia or the Pacific Ocean region.
The virus was an email titled, “Pikachu Pokemon” with the message, “Pikachu is your friend. ” The email independent the angel of the animation character, ‘Pikachu’ from the TV alternation Pokemon, with the message, “Between millions of bodies about the apple I begin you. Don’t balloon to bethink this day every time MY FRIEND. ” The Pikachu virus adulterated alone a few companies in the United States through Microsoft Outlook email accessories or through Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser.
The acumen why alone a few companies were afflicted and why the virus was not as viral is that the virus was not coded appropriately and would ask the user if the virus can annul the files in the user. 1. 1. 2Worm A bastard is a awful cipher that is acclimated for bringing bottomward the computer system. A bastard does not affect files, however, it monopolies the computer’s CPU and operating arrangement and is able of deleting abstracts and programs. It infects a computer by award vulnerability in an appliance or operating system. A bastard is self-replicating and uses a arrangement to carbon itself to alternative computer.
It does not await on animal alternation for overextension to alternative computers. An archetype would be the Morris Bastard or additionally accepted as the Great Worm. Created by a Cornell University apprentice alleged Robert Tappan Morris in the year 1968, the Morris Bastard consisted of 99 curve of code. Robert Morris capital to apperceive how big the Internet was and fabricated the bastard to accretion the answer. It is acclaimed that the architect did not acquire awful absorbed in authoritative this worm; however, the bastard adulterated immense amounts of adherence problems that fabricated abounding systems unusable.
The accident was over 6,000 adulterated UNIX machines which bulk amid $10,000,000 and $100,000,000. This archetype is an ethical bind because the architect did not acquire angry intentions in authoritative the bastard but did acquire bad furnishings on best bodies in America. This bind would be ethical based on the cerebral arrogance admission because Robert Morris acted on his egocentric motive whether he should or not, which fabricated him moral. Based on the amusement theory, it was ethical of Morris because he was alone accomplishing his assignment afterwards alive that his accomplishments would accompany aloft abrogating effects. 1. 1. 3Trojan Horse
Named afterwards the Trojan horse from Troy which was acclimated to admission the enemy’s breadth through a disguise, the Trojan horse is bearded as article abroad (such as a affairs or file) but is absolutely a awful cipher or may accommodate awful code. Agnate to viruses, a Trojan horse is accomplished aback the book with the virus is opened or the affairs with the awful cipher is accomplished also. A Trojan horse can do from ablaze amercement such as about-face the desktop and the like, to aggressive damage, such as deleting files, burglary data, or activating and overextension alternative malware, to the victim’s software.
Trojan horses are additionally acclimated to actualize a ‘back door’ in the operating arrangement so that the hackers can admission the system. However, the Trojan horse cannot akin itself nor it can self-replicate. It would allegation the user to advance to alternative computers. An archetype of a Trojan horse would be from the pirated adaptation of Apple’s apartment of software, iWork. iServices was the Trojan horse allotment of the pirated adaptation of iWork, which would arresting the hackers that the Mac is adulterated and the hacker has admission to the system.
This is an ethical bind because the bodies who buy pirated software such as the iWork do not apperceive that there is a Trojan horse in the software. It was bent of the sellers to abode a Trojan horse in the software afterwards the accord of their customers’ because deontology admission states that it was not the assignment of the vendors to drudge into the systems of their barter in the aboriginal place. Addition acumen why it was bent because of the admission of altruism because the absorption of others was not anticipation about aback abounding bodies will ache due to the accomplishments of the vendors.
This is addition acumen why it is unethical, because of the utilitarianism, which is consequences-based. Lastly, the amusing arrangement admission states that the accomplishments of the vendors were bent because it is adjoin the law to drudge and admission clandestine property. Logic bomb is a blazon of Trojan horse that is triggered alone by a alternation of specific contest such as a specific arrangement of keystrokes or a change in a file. 1. 1. 4Botnets A botnet is a arrangement of adulterated computers that are controlled by bots.
Named afterwards the chat ‘robot’, a bot is a blazon of malware that allows an antagonist to booty ascendancy of an afflicted computer. Criminal can booty over the controlled computer such as sending out spam, advance viruses, advance computer and can akin annual abomination and fraud, afterwards the buyer alive it. Bots are additionally alleged computer crank because the computer has no ascendancy over its accomplishments aback hackers are in allegation of its actions. 1. 1. 5Distributed Denial-Of-Service Attacks (DDoS Attacks) A Distributed Denial-of-Service Advance is aback a awful hacker controls computers through the Internet.
It is an advance in preventing the computer buyer to use arrangement ability or machine. It is composed of one or added bodies aggravating to attenuate a assertive host from actuality affiliated to the Internet. 1. 1. 6Rootkits The name rootkit comes from the two words ‘root’, which pertains to the point it attacks, which would be the ambassador or the antecedent or the root, and ‘kit’ because of the set of programs. A rootkit is a set of programs that enables its user to accretion ambassador akin admission to a computer afterwards the user’s accord or knowledge.
The buyer of the rootkit is able of alive files and about-face arrangement configurations on the ambition machine, as able-bodied as accessing log files or ecology action to covertly spy on the user's computer usage. It is adamantine to ascertain if a computer arrangement has a rootkit malware. 1. 1. 7Spam E-mail spam is aback e-mail systems accelerate unsolicited e-mail to ample numbers of people. Spam mostly comes off as bargain advertisements of aberrant articles such as pornography, ‘get-rich-quick’ schemes and the like. Spam can additionally be acclimated to bear adverse worms or alternative malware. . 1. 8Phishing Phishing is an advance to abduct claimed character abstracts by tricking users into entering advice on a afflicted Web site. 1. 2Types of Perpetrators 1. 2. 1Hackers and Absurd Hackers are bodies who assay the banned of the system, accretion the “holes”, and assay which abstracts they could access. The ability that they get is absolutely achievable in assorted media, usually the internet. They are not usually advised bad; but due to abounding of them who acclimated such ability to annual corruption to systems, the appellation became negative.
A added adapted appellation for these kinds of bodies is absolutely alleged crackers. 1. 2. 2 Awful Assembly Awful assembly are bodies who admission goods, services, or acreage through bamboozlement or trickery, additionally accepted as fraud. In alternative words they lie to gain. 1. 2. 3 Automated Spies Automated spies are bodies who illegally admission advice from competitors for the annual of their sponsor. The act is alleged automated espionage and the adverse which is to admission advice accurately is alleged aggressive intelligence.
In 1993, Opel accused the battling Volkswagen of automated espionage afterwards the former’s arch of assembly and seven admiral confused to the closing aggregation due to missing documents. (Julian, 2011) 1. 2. 4 Cybercriminals These perpetrators drudge to the company’s arrangement and will do annihilation with the advice aloof to accretion money. One of the best acclaimed hackers of the apple is Albert Gonzalez, who acclimated hacking to abduct and resell millions of agenda and ATM numbers in a p of three years. He did this by advancing abounding systems which would eventually accord him the advice bare to abduct the agenda numbers. Verini, 2010) Albert Gonzalez is in ethical bind because he acclimated his abilities to abduct the advice for money. Based on the deontological theory, it’s bent because it is not the assignment of hackers to abduct information. Based on amusement beneath the commonsensical theory, it is ethical because he begin amusement from the act. Amusing arrangement theory, however, makes this act unethical, and so does advantage theory. 1. 2. 5 Hacktivists and Cyberterrorists Hacktivists, accumulation the words “hacking” and “activist”, are bodies who drudge to advance political ideology.
Cyberterrorists advance to get the absorption of the government as allotment of their political objectives. Bearding is one of the best acclaimed hacktivist groups due to their actualization on assorted media in which associates arise cutting the Guy Fawkes mask. Their advancement is to argue the Internet censorship and surveillance, government bribery and homophobia. This is why they attacked several government sites. (Katich, 2013) The ethical bind the accumulation faces is that they use hacking abilities to admission the systems yet they accord to the ancillary of the bodies as their cold is to accomplish the government apprehend their voice.
This is ethical based on deontology because it is their assignment to accomplish the government acquire to them their voice. This is additionally ethical based on the altruistic admission as added will annual from their act. However, amusing arrangement admission states that it is bent aback this act has abandoned the law. 1. 3Laws for Prosecuting Computer Attacks 1. 3. 1Electronic Business Act of 2000 (RA 8792) 1. 3. 1. 1E-Commerce in Association The action of affairs and affairs appurtenances electronically by consumers and from aggregation to aggregation through computerized business transactions.
This act has the purpose of attention those who accompany business in cyberbanking bureau through assorted advice networks through the Internet. 1. 3. 1. 2 Elements in the Law Cyberbanking abstracts letters – these are about the advice that is in every transaction of the business. Cyberbanking certificate – these are the blazon of advice authentic with text, symbols, or alternative modes of accounting announcement yet agnate in attributes with the cyberbanking abstracts messages. Cyberbanking Signature – these are any characteristic marks that acquire a transaction which are done by a actuality or an article appliance cyberbanking means. . 3. 1. 3Relation to alternative Laws Such laws that are afflicted with this are the Intellectual Acreage Rights, Copyrights Protection. These laws accord aegis to the parties complex in any business activities through cyberbanking means. Artifice is additionally accompanying as the government can allegation you aback you accomplish acquire acquittal illegally by camouflage your armpit as a reliable advantage for payment. 1. 3. 1. 4 CASE in E-Commerce Censorship is actual an capital apparatus to analyze the moralities of websites and the cooperation of companies to accede said moralities.
In China, Google's operations created a storm of criticism aback the aggregation agreed to accede with the government's wishes and abridge pro-democracy and alternative websites. In 2010, Google relocated its Chinese operations to Hong Kong, putting it alfresco China's censorship regime. Supporters of the accommodation say Google shouldn't abet with China's backbreaking policies, while critics say Google's abandonment cut off millions of Chinese citizens from the company's casework and weakens its attendance in one of the world's better markets. This case has actual axiomatic ethical issues including the move of Google to backpack its operations to Hong Kong.
This fabricated the administration of China’s censorship action not attainable so that they can use their assets added freely. These about fabricated the citizens of China that is central the administration of the censorship action continued for their benign chase engine. If apparent in Google’s allowances this is a rather acceptable barter for them to aerate the use of their casework in a bartering breadth such as Hong Kong yet they could’ve served the citizens so they can accumulate up their acceptability of convalescent action in the apple and be constant of the acclaimed band “Don’t be evil”.
I about disagree with their accommodation to backpack as they could’ve followed the adapted advantage and accord their casework to those who would allegation them the most. Still they acted the ethical arrogance to abridge pro – capitalism sites which are about acceptable to their perspective. 1. 3. 1. 5Another Archetype Including Google Google gathers absurd amounts of abstracts on bodies who use its chase engine. As of 2011, the company's website states that although it food annal of your searches as a apparatus to advance accumulated efficiency, it renders them bearding afterwards nine months and deletes accolade acclimated to clue visitors afterwards two years.
Governments could use Google's advice to investigate individuals visiting accurate websites, however, and Google Earth's photo accumulating additionally has aloft aloofness questions: In 2008, a brace sued on the area the online photos of their home abandoned their privacy, but a adjudicator threw out the accusation the abutting year. This case is provides acumen to how Google can be of every use to our association as they can advice the government bolt fugitives, suspects and abyss with their annal of the searches of the every actuality appliance their chase engines yet this leaves them to aperture assertive aloofness issues aback they corruption that affectionate of power.
The accusation of the brace may be absolved by a adjudicator but their accusation are accurate by ethical theories namely the rights – based theories which states that there are amusing affairs that should be accustomed and that includes their appropriate for privacy. They may be acknowledged to abundance annal such as the photo from their Google Earth but they should acquire to absolute their ability to exercise their assignment as they are additionally accurate by the assignment – based theories due to their circadian or around-the-clock assignment of convalescent accumulated ability as able-bodied as giving us admission to absolute knowledge. 1. 3. 2 Cybercrime Blockage Act of 2012 (RA 10175) 1. . 3. 1 Preliminary Provisions 1. 3. 3. 2. 1. 1 Brief History of RA 10175 Cybercrime Blockage Act of 2012 or additionally accepted as Republic Act No. 10175 was accustomed on September 12, 2012. This is aboriginal law in the Philippines which accurately criminalizes computer-related crimes. The Cybercrime Blockage Act in its accepted anatomy is the artefact of House Bill No. 5808, authored by Representative Susan Tap-Sulit of the additional commune of Tarlac and 36 alternative co-authors. The final adaptation of the Act was afterwards alive into law by President Benigno Aquino III on September 12, 2012. 1. 3. 2. 1. 1 Declaration of Policy
The capital cold of this Act is to assure the bodies from cybercrimes and additionally from the adverse furnishings associated with it. The accompaniment additionally aims to admit the basal roles of advice and communications industries in the country. The accompaniment additionally recognizes the allegation to assure and aegis the citizens of the state, and additionally to assure the candor of computers and its users. The accompaniment additionally wants to admit the accent of accouterment an ambiance accessory to the development acceleration, and rational appliance and corruption of advice and communications technology. . 3. 3. 2. 1 General Provisions 1. 3. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1 Amiss Acts In this Act, there are 10 amiss acts adumbrated in the bill, and those amiss acts anniversary acquire penalties that are associated. In the abutting sentences, the amiss acts will be discussed briefly. Offenses adjoin the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computer abstracts and systems: A. Actionable Admission – accessing a computer or a allotment of a computer afterwards any appropriate B.
Illegal Interception – the interception fabricated by the use of any abstruse accessory afterwards any appropriate of clandestine manual of accomplishment to or from any computer arrangement including electromagnetic emissions from a computer arrangement accustomed such abstracts C. Abstracts Arrest – the advised or any adventuresome alteration, damaging, abatement or abasement of computer data, cyberbanking document, or cyberbanking abstracts message, afterwards any appropriate including the manual or appointment bacilli into a system. One archetype is the ILOVEYOU bulletin transmitted through cyberbanking mail way aback in the year 2000.
D. Arrangement Arrest – the advised or any adventuresome adverse or arrest with a action computer system, or a computer arrangement by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering, or supressing computer abstracts or computer affairs afterwards any appropriate or ascendancy in accomplishing so. E. Misuse of Accessories – the use of any actual afterwards any appropriate of it. Acts like producing, manufacturing, selling, and distribution. F. Cyber-squatting – the simplest way is character theft, appliance addition individual’s character to accretion accumulation or betray alternative bodies in the internet.
G. Computer-related Forgery – the actionable use of a computer into artful one’s work, and accepting actionable admission to a computer to archetype the agreeable of a arrangement or database. H. Computer-related Artifice – the crooked input, alteration, or abatement of computer abstracts or affairs or arrest in the action of a computer system. I. Computer-related Character Annexation – the advised acquisition, use, transfer, or ascendancy of any anecdotic advice acceptance to addition person, whether accustomed of juridical. Beneath these are Cybersex and Child Pornography. J.
Libel – authentic as a accessible and awful allegation of a crime, or of a carnality or defect, absolute or imaginary, or any acts, omission, condition, cachet or accident disposed to discredit or annual the dishonour or antipathy of a accustomed or argumentative actuality committed through a computer arrangement or any alternative agnate bureau which may be devised in the future. The aloft declared are the amiss acts by the law activated and accounting in the bill, and these acts acquire agnate penalties if acquire been accurate to the court. The penalties include: imprisonment or a accomplished of at atomic two hundred thousand pesos (Php. 00,000. 00) up to a best bulk adequate to the accident incurred or both. Prison ambassador is agnate to imprisonment from 6 years and one day to twelve years. 1. 3. 3 Ethical/ Moral Dilemmas 1. 3. 4. 2 Bearings A 16-year old macho alleged “Josh Evans” was registered on the annual acclimated for blowing letters to a babe alleged Megan Mier. Lori Drew, the mother of Sarah, a above acquaintance Mier, afterwards accepted creating the MySpace account. She was aided by Sarah and Ashley Grills, an 18-year-old agent of the ancient Drew.
The chief Drew and several others ran the afflicted account, with an aim to get advice about Megan and use that advice adjoin her and additionally for her to be humiliated. This acquired overextension gossips about Megan, and appropriately creating a alarming acquaintance not alone for her but additionally to her family. 1. 3. 4. 3 Analysing appliance the Four Major Ethical Theories A. Duty-based Admission According to the Duty-based theory, an act is advised ethical if it has acceptable intentions. Given the situation, I can acutely accompaniment that it is not an ethical affair to do. Creating or overextension apocryphal rumours is not akin abutting to be alleged as a acceptable intention.
Also, acquisition advice about a assertive actuality is not ethical if it will be acclimated adjoin or be captivated adjoin to a person. Appliance the Duty-Based Theory, I can acutely accompaniment that the bearings of acquisition advice of Megan is not ethical because it does not serve a acceptable intention. B. Advantage According to the Advantage Admission an act is alone to be advised ethical if it produces adorable after-effects or outcomes. The aftereffect of the bearings declared beforehand is that the acquaintance Megan was alarming not alone for herself, but it additionally afflicted her family.
Just by attractive at this outcome, we can say that it is not additionally advised ethical in this theory, because of the outcomes that the accomplishments of the accumulation had acquired not alone their ambition but additionally the accord of alternative bodies to Megan. C. Amusing Arrangement Admission According to the amusing arrangement admission an act is advised ethical if the act does not aperture any rules or laws; according to the Civil Cipher of the Philippines: Persons and Ancestors Relations, beneath Chapter 2 which is Animal Relations the Articles 19, 20 and 21 discusses the altered rights a actuality possesses and how a actuality should exercise his or her rights.
Chapter 2 Article 19 presents the basal attempt that are to be empiric for the applicable accord amid animal beings and the adherence of the amusing order. Chapter 2 Article 20 presents that you are accountable for any accident that you acquire acquired to addition person, whether wilfully or negligently. Chapter 2 Article 26 presents that appropriate charge never abused, the moment that it is abused, the moment rights are abused they accomplished to right. D. Advantage According to the Advantage theory, the action that is advised to be ethical is aback the action is came from a acceptable moral principle.
Looking to the situation, it is not an ethical affair to do because it does alone corruption the actuality complex but additionally the moral attempt of the doubtable is to be questioned. 1. 3 Accurate Accretion 1. 4. 1 Microsoft’s 4 Pillars of accurate Accretion The 4 Pillars of accurate accretion advice analyze the key elements in accretion abnormally in an alignment with abundant advisers to manage. Guidance is a key to advice apparatus a acceptable and abiding arrangement such as how the pillars adviser not aloof Microsoft advisers but users alike. 1. 4. . 1 Aegis Creation of a assurance aces ambiance for a safe accretion ambiance 1. 4. 2. 2 Aloofness The aegis and acquaintance of design, development and testing in any alignment is capital as to be allotment of the aggressive bazaar today. 1. 4. 2. 3 Reliability Working as accepted or promised by the developers and their article 1. 4. 2. 4 Business Candor Actuality amenable and cellophane in you duties and apprehension as allotment of a assignment force that strives to be accomplished a aberration is apprenticed to happen.
Admitting a aberration is the 1st footfall to a growing action of acquirements new things to come. 1. 4. 2 Accident Appraisal It is the action of assessing aegis accompanying risks to an organization’s computers and networks from both centralized and alien (Reynolds, 2011) A accident appraisal is a action to analyze abeyant hazards and analyse what could appear if a hazard occurs. (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2013) The appraisal would assure the IT aegis aggregation that they will be accessible aback an advance comes because of the bent accident appraisal they perform. 1. 4. 1 General Aegis Accident Appraisal Process
Step 1: Analyze IT assets and accent ones that are of best accent Footfall 2: Analyze the threats/risks that could action Footfall 3: Appraise the likelihood of threats Footfall 4: Determine the appulse of anniversary threat, how ample to baby is the appulse if afflicted Footfall 5: Determine how anniversary blackmail can be prevented/blocked Footfall 6: Which is the best able blockage adjustment Footfall 7: Accomplish bulk annual assay afore demography any action Footfall 8: Accomplish the accommodation to apparatus or not to apparatus the absitively accident blockage begin through absolute analysis and development 1. 4. 3 Establishing a aegis policy
Defines an organization’s aegis requirements, as able-bodied as controls and sanctions bare to accommodated those requirements. (Reynolds, 2011) A acceptable aegis action can possibly advance and accommodate a bland breeze of operations aural an organization. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) is a non-regulatory federal bureau aural the US administration of commerce. The computer aegis analysis creates aegis standards for organizations to apparatus in their own system. 1. 4. 4 Educating the Employees, Contractor and Part-Time Workers Surveys appearance that best aegis problems appear from apathy and blindness of the aegis policies.
Teaching acceptable aegis practices like not giving out your passwords, authoritative abiding you do not meddle in altered departments. Alive the Dos and DONTs of accustomed accretion will advice adviser any abode and absolute them to the acceptable means of actuality a acceptable user. 1. 4. 5 Blackmail Blockage The key to a blackmail blockage arrangement are layers of aegis systems that claiming the perpetrator to drudge into the system. Firewall – stands bouncer amid an organization’s centralized arrangement and the internet Advance Blockage Systems – prevents an advance by blocking viruses, abnormal packets and alternative threats from accepting into a adequate network.
Antivirus software – should be installed on anniversary user’s claimed computer to browse a computer’s deejay drives and anamnesis consistently for viruses. User accounts that abide alive afterwards advisers leave annual an ambiguous blackmail to the company, IT agents charge promptly annul and accomplish abiding to clean out all the privileges of the above employee. The US-CERT (United States Computer Emergency Arrangement Team) and SANS(SysAdmin, Audit, Network,System) Institute – consistently amend a arbitrary of the best common and aerial appulse threats to a computer arrangement accurately bacilli and worms. . 4. 6 Aegis Audit An important blockage apparatus that evaluates whether an alignment has a acceptable aegis action and if it is actuality followed. An archetype would be a claim to change passwords every anniversary or ages with this in abode a aegis for companies are abundant added adequate compared to others afterwards this requirement. Basically to test, assay and analysis the system’s aegis and attending for bend holes and accessible targets. 1. 4. 7 Apprehension The antitoxin measures fabricated for a computer arrangement is not consistently abundant to assure important data.
Intrusion apprehension arrangement – is a software/hardware that monitors arrangement and arrangement resources, notifies a arrangement admin aback an advance occurs Ability based advance arrangement – contains advice about attacks and arrangement vulnerabilities, again activate an anxiety (ex. Again login, again abstracts events) Behaviour based advance arrangement – compares users arrangement behaviour with an admin created archetypal that detects aback a user is not afterward the appropriate model, this would activate an alarm. (Example: Unusual action with an annual in the HR administration accessing the IT department’s data. 1. 4. 8 Response
An alignment should be able for the worst, like a arrangement advance that stops all operations and steals abstracts from the company. The top antecedence during an advance is not to bolt the perpetrator but to achieve ascendancy and save what is left. Who needs to be informed? And who not to notify? Acceptability and believability is at pale in any aegis breach. A aggregation should certificate all capacity of a aegis aperture and be able to analysis it afterwards to appraise and added study. Eradication of the damaged/breached advice is capital but afore aggregate a log is appropriate to accumulate clue 1. . 9 Ethical Moral Dilemmas You are a affiliate of a ample IT aegis abutment accumulation of a ample accomplishment company. You acquire been alive backward at night and abreast that addition has defaced your organization’s website and additionally attempted to accretion admission to computer files absolute a new artefact beneath development. What are your abutting steps? How abundant time would you absorb tracking bottomward the hacker? -Deontological 1. 5 References * (1999, 10). Cyberbanking Commerce. StudyMode. com. Retrieved 10, 1999, from http://www. studymode. com/essays/Electronic-Commerce-731. tml * THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE ACT (R. A. 8792) AN OVERVIEW OF IT? S (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY) IMPACT ON THE PHILIPPINE LEGAL SYSTEM(2005 006). 'www. ustlawreview. com/pdf/vol. L/Articles/The_Electronic_Commerce_Act_RA_8792. pdf * What Is the Difference: Viruses, Worms, Trojans, and Bots? - Cisco Systems. (n. d. ). Cisco Systems, Inc. Retrieved from http://www. cisco. com/web/about/security/intelligence/virus-worm-diffs. html * What Is A Rootkit? (n. d. ). Internet / Arrangement Aegis - Tips, Advice and Tutorials About Internet Aegis and Arrangement Security.
Retrieved from http://netsecurity. about. com/od/frequentlyaskedquestions/f/faq_rootkit. htm * Julian. (2011). 10 Best Notorious Acts of Accumulated Espionage. Retrieved from http://www. businesspundit. com/10-most-notorious-acts-of-corporate-espionage/ * Katich, A. (2013). Bearding (Annie Katich). Retrieved from http://socialactive. wordpress. com/2013/02/25/anonymous-annie-katich/ * Verini, J. (2010). The Great Cyberheist. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2010/11/14/magazine/14Hacker-t. html/
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