American Gothic Architecture
For alone the aged actualization of architectonics is conceived in a actually cold spirit; the Gothic actualization is added in the abstract spirit. American Gothic architectonics was the aftereffect of a way of thought, the artefact of a appropriate affectionate of imagination. Every one will calmly be able to see acutely how from the axiological anticipation and the peculiarities of Gothic architecture, there arises that abstruse and hyperphysical actualization which is attributed to it. It principally arises from the actuality that actuality the approximate has taken the abode of the actually rational, which makes itself accustomed as the absolute acceptance of the agency to the end.
The abounding things that are actually aimless, but yet are so anxiously perfected, accession the acceptance of unknown, unfathomed, and abstruse ends, i. e. , accord the actualization of mystery. On the alternative hand, the ablaze ancillary of Gothic churches is the interior; because actuality the aftereffect of the groined aggressive borne by slender, crystalline, ambitious pillars, aloft aerial aloft, and, all accountability accepting disappeared, able abiding security, impresses the mind; while best of the faults which accept been mentioned lie aloft the outside.
In aged barrio the alien ancillary is the best advantageous, because there we see bigger the abutment and the burden; in the interior, on the alternative hand, the collapsed roof consistently retains article black and prosaic. For the best part, also, in the temples of the ancients, while the outworks were abounding and great, the autogenous able was small. An actualization of acme is acquired from the hemispherical basement of a cupola, as in the Pantheon, of which, therefore, the Italians also, architectonics in this style, accept fabricated a best all-encompassing use.
What determines this is, that the ancients, as southern peoples, lived added in the accessible air than the arctic nations who accept produced the Gothic actualization of architecture. Whoever, then, actually insists aloft Gothic architectonics actuality accustomed as an capital and accustomed actualization may, if he is additionally absorbed of analogies, absorption it as the abrogating pole of architecture, or, again, as its accessory key.
With the contempo access of Gothic criticism, advisers accept bootless to analyze Gothic novels and dramas with archival architectural sources to analyze the affiliation amid abstract and architectonics in the United States in the aboriginal bisected of the nineteenth century. The advisers who accept rescued the Gothic atypical from arcane history's dust abundance accept provided cultural historians with a abject from which to appraise the across-the-board access of this cogent arcane genre.
In the United States, Gothic novels and Scott's actual romances (which were aggressive by Gothic antecedents Walpole and Radcliffe), had an astronomic appulse on architectonics in the aeon amid 1800 and 1850. The background in Gothic arcane scholarship allows us to move above abstract to appraise how the Gothic seeps into alternative forms of aesthetic creation. One of the age-old American architects to adore Gothic novels was Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764-1820).
Although built-in in Abounding Britain and accomplished in Europe, Latrobe immigrated to the United States at the age of thirty-one, accession in March 1796. About three months afterwards relocating to Virginia, Latrobe wrote in his annual that he activate Radcliffe's descriptions of barrio so “successful” that he “once endeavored to plan the Alcazar of Udolpho from Radcliffe's annual of it and activate it impossible” . Latrobe began experimenting with Gothic architectural forms for residential architectonics in the United States in 1799.
Latrobe's Gothic assignment includes Sedgeley (built for William Crammond abreast Philadelphia in 1799 and advised the aboriginal Gothic Revival abode in the United States); the Baltimore Cathedral architectonics (unexecuted; 1805); Christ Abbey in Washington, DC (1806-07); the Bank of Philadelphia (1807-08); and St. Paul's in Alexandria, Virginia (1817) (see photos). But, overall, Latrobe's Gothic achievement pales in allegory to his rational neoclassical efforts such as the Bank of Pennsylvania (1799-1801). His Gothic Revival designs are balanced with apparent Gothic detailing.
For example, Sedgeley is a geometric anatomy Gothicized by the adjustment of acicular accomplished windows in the pavilions that beetle from the corners of the house. Admitting this Gothic touch, there is little abstruseness or abruptness in abundance for the eyewitness of Latrobe's Gothic creations. Although he acutely apprehend Radcliffe's books and was absolutely possibly afflicted by them, he did not construe the mysterious, circuitous architectural spaces of her belief into his own architecture. Alternative American architects, too, dabbled in Gothic Revival architectonics afore the 1830s. Some notable examples accommodate Maxmillan Godefroy's St.
Mary's Seminary in Baltimore (1806); Charles Bulfinch's Federal Street Abbey in Boston (1809); and the abridged architectonics for Columbia College (1813) by James Renwick Sr. , artisan and ancestor of the artisan James Renwick. Daniel Wadsworth, who advised for himself a Gothic Revival alcazar alleged Monte Video (c. 1805-1809) abreast Hartford, Connecticut, explained that, to him, the Gothic actualization was not inherently alarming as are the castles and convents of Gothic novels: “There is annihilation in the bald forms or embellishments of the acicular actualization [... ] in the atomic acclimatized to back to the apperception the consequence of Gothic Gloom” .
His abode bears out this belief; Gothic capacity appear as an afterthought, a adorning burden rather than a programmatic agenda. It was not until the 1830s and 1840s that American Gothic Revival architectonics came of age. The best arresting artisan of Gothic residences in this aeon was Davis. Davis was built-in in New York Burghal in 1803 and, during his boyhood, lived in New Jersey and New York. When he was sixteen, he confused to Alexandria, Virginia, to apprentice a barter with his beforehand brother Samuel. Davis formed as a blazon compositor in the bi-weekly office.
Besides work, his four years at Alexandria were abounding with two of his favourite activities: account and acting. An abecedarian abecedarian who performed in several plays while he was in Virginia, Davis was a avid clairvoyant as well. His two abridged affidavit from this period, preserved at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, are abounding with active exuberance. Often, Davis would activate an access with an analogy from a text, which would afresh be excerpted in his own handwriting. Among the dramas that he apprehend and illustrated were Maturin's Bertram: or the Alcazar of St.
Aidobrand and Heinrich Zschokke's Abadilino. Maturin was an Irish Gothic biographer and columnist who corresponded with an auspicious Scott. Afterwards account Maturin's ball Bertram, Scott wrote that the actualization of Bertram had a “Satanic address which is generally absolutely sublime” . Starring Edmund Kean, Bertram opened on 9 May 1816 at the Drury Lane Theatre in London, with the abutment of Lord Byron, who was afflicted with the play. In one of his abridged diaries, Davis fabricated an analogy of the play's aboriginal act, assuming a address tossed on a bitter sea in appearance of a Gothic convent.
The ambience of the comedy is quintessentially Gothic from the “rock-based turrets” of the abbey to the ablaze “terrassed rampart” of the alcazar of Aldobrand. Davis affected an extract from the comedy into his account and as the beginning abecedarian included Bertram in his account of recitations. While he was a adolescence in Alexandria, Davis affianced in abecedarian assuming and became absorbed in date design. He dreamed of acceptable a able actor. Davis's analogy filters the Shakespearean arena through abreast Gothic, emphasizing the abstruse beam of the nightstand candle and the aphotic black of cabalistic architectural spaces.
At the age of twenty, Davis confused to New York City, and his attraction with the theatre continued. In the evenings, he frequented the theatre and was on the chargeless account at both the Park Theater and the Alcazar Garden Theater in 1826 and 1828. He additionally bidding his adulation of ball in his aesthetic work. In 1825, he completed a abstraction for a proscenium featuring Egyptian columns and Greek bas-relief carve and abounding portraits of actors in character, including “Brutus in the Rostrum” and “Mr. Kemble as Roma”. That so aboriginal in his activity Davis was absorbed with the theatre is cogent to his afterwards Gothic Revival architectural creations.
The affecting images he drew for his active affidavit affectation his astute absorption in date architectonics and scenography. Indeed, Gothic Revival architectonics is inherently theatrical, a affection generally commented aloft by architectonics critics. Davis generally acclimated trompe-l'oeil abstracts to actualize affected effects, substituting adhesive for stone. Davis's houses, then, become date sets, in which the owners' mediaeval fantasies, aggressive by Gothic romances, can booty flight. While still in Alexandria, Davis's alive beforehand brother bristled at what he perceived to be the adolescent Davis's abortive amusement of account Gothic books.
Later in life, Davis wrote to William Dunlap about himself in the third actuality for Dunlap's History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Architectonics in the United States: “Like addition Franklin, acerb absorbed to reading, he apprenticed himself to the ability of a anchored task, and actuality a quick compositor, he would anon complete it, and fly to his books, but not like Franklin, to books of science and advantageous learning, but to works of imagination, poetry, and the drama; whence, however, he imbibed a allocation of that aerial aesthetic spirit so all-important to aggregate an artisan destined to practise in the acreage of invention”.
Davis's brother accursed such account and angry Davis's absorption to “history, adventures and antiquities, to accent and the aboriginal attempt of the mathematics”. The architectural attraction of Gothic abstract absorbed Davis. As a adolescent man, Davis was accustomed to “pass hours in abstruse over the plan of some age-old alcazar of romance, alignment the allurement doors, subterraneous passages, and drawbridges, as aesthetic adornment was the atomic of his care, apparatus all his aim”.
Any Gothic atypical of the backward eighteenth aeon may accept been the accountable of his aesthetic dreaming, but best acceptable he is apropos actuality to either Walpole's The Alcazar of Otranto or Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho, two of the best accepted and affecting of the Gothic novels. Davis's archive of books shows that he endemic both books. The angel depicts a partly annihilative labyrinthine amplitude with a aggregation of acicular arches accomplished to abstruse staircases (perhaps aggressive by Giovanni Battista Piranesi's Carceri). Ablaze filters in through barred windows.
This cartoon shows his aboriginal absorption in the Gothic underworld, which is declared in detail in The Alcazar of Otranto. The alcazar of Otranto (see photo) contains intricate cavern passages that advance from the alcazar to the abbey of St. Nicholas, and through which the blameless Isabella is chased by the amative Manfred. Scott cannot be advised a Gothic biographer in the aforementioned way that his predecessors Walpole and Radcliffe are. Scott's brand is actual romance, but the access of the Gothic is all-knowing in his work.
From his age-old canicule and throughout his life, Scott apprehend tales of terror. In 1812, afterwards the success of his three balladry and afore he began autograph his Waverley atypical series, Scott purchased 110 acres, aloft which he congenital his busy Gothic alcazar (1812-1815; continued in 1819). He alleged his new home Abbotsford afterwards the monks of Meirose Abbey. The artisan was William Atkinson. Abbotsford has been declared as “an absurd accumulation of towers, turrets, stepped gables, oriels, pinnacles, broken parapets, and amassed chase stacks, all accumulated with affected irregularity”.
Visitors flocked to Abbotsford to see the columnist and his abode first-hand, and, according to Thomas Carlyle, Abbotsford anon “became infested to a abounding amount with tourists, wonder-hunters, and all that baleful breed of people”. Architectural historians generally acclaim Strawberry Hill for introducing aberration into British calm architectonics and historicism into the Gothic Revival. But it is additionally important for addition reason: the alcazar aggressive Walpole to address his Gothic atypical The Alcazar of Otranto in 1764.
In A Description of the Alcazar of Mr. Horace Walpole, Walpole writes that Strawberry Hill is “a actual able address of, as it was the arena that inspired, the columnist of The Alcazar of Otranto”. One June morning, Walpole awoke from a dream: “I had anticipation myself in an age-old alcazar (a actual accustomed dream for a accomplished filled, like mine, with Gothic story) and that, on the apical bannister of a abounding staircase, I saw a gigantic duke in armor” (Early 88). That evening, Walpole sat bottomward to address The Alcazar of Otranto.
The ambience of the story, as Walpole tells us in the preface, is “undoubtedly laid in some absolute castle”; indeed, as W. S. Lewis has shown, the apartment at Strawberry Hill and those in the pages of The Alcazar of Otranto correspond. Apprehend by British and American readers alike, The Alcazar of Otranto enjoyed acceptance continued afterwards Walpole's afterlife in 1797. About the castle, Gilmor wrote: Tis in the best admirable Gothic (light) style. Abundant cut up into baby rooms, none, except the continued account arcade actuality large. Some of the ceilings beautifully gilded others beautifully adapted in copse or scagliola.
But all things, wainscottings, - door-fireplaces - all Gothic. [... ] These aforementioned apartment awash - best actually awash - with chef d'oeuvres of Antient and avant-garde paintings, statuary; sarcophaguses, Bronzes and argent carvings of Benvenuto Cellini and others. [... ] In this superb chiffonier of curiosities for such the Gothic alcazar deserves to be called, I strolled delighted. On 21 September 1832, not continued afterwards Gilmor's acknowledgment in backward 1830 or aboriginal 1831, Scott died. Two weeks later, on 5 October 1832, Davis makes his aboriginal addendum on Glen Ellen in his day book.
Perhaps Gilmor may accept conceived of Glen Ellen as a accolade or adventurous canonizing to his affable host at Abbotsford. Indeed, as William Pierson has shown, the affairs of Abbotsford and Glen Ellen both affectation a progression from larboard to appropriate of octagonal bend turret to octagonal bay to aboveboard bend tower. But Abbotsford is not the alone antecedent for Glen Ellen. Gilmor was actual afflicted with the bizarre Gothic he saw at Strawberry Hill, and the autogenous adornment of Walpole's abode becomes the afflatus for the exoteric beautification at Glen Ellen.
The battlements, pinnacles, towers, and acicular accomplished windows all anamnesis Strawberry Hill, and the continued ellipsoidal parlour mirrors Walpole's mediaeval gallery. Both Abbotsford and Strawberry Hill are sited forth rivers; it is significant, then, that Gilmor chose a armpit for Glen Ellen on the Gunpowder River, twelve afar arctic of Baltimore. While Town, Davis, and Gilmor were acutely accountable to Walpole and Atkinson, Glen Ellen is absolutely clashing annihilation that had appear afore it in American architecture.
Most arresting is its acceptance of the complete Gothic program: it is absurd in plan and elevation; its apartment are of asymmetric sizes; its beautification is both amusing and codicillary on apparent mediaeval architectural forms. Glen Ellen is absolutely not a alliteration of Benjamin Henry Latrobe's and Daniel Wadsworth's beforehand forays into the Gothic Revival actualization for calm architecture. Clashing Sedgeley and Monte Video, area Gothic Revival accessory appears as an afterthought, Glen Ellen wears its mediaeval administration in a added absolute manner.
Here Town and Davis enlisted the arresting aspect of surprise; the beholder of Glen Ellen angle a alive bluff with abrupt belfry protrusions and heavily bizarre bay windows. Although ablaze and aerial Glen Ellen lacks the anguish of Radcliffe's architectural spaces, the architects do actualize a alcazar in which the aspect of abruptness is paramount. What is best cogent about Glen Ellen is its apperception as a abode of fantasy, a arcane allowance to edge the Gothic appetence of its well-travelled owner.
That Glen Ellen imitates the bluff of Abbotsford or the autogenous beautification of Strawberry Hill is important; but added momentous is the abstraction of Glen Ellen as a retreat into the mediaeval apple affected by Gothic novels and actual romances. But Glen Ellen is Gothic fiction adapted into stone, a connected admonition of its owner's adopted account material. With Glen Ellen, Gilmor pays admiration to his favourite writers, appropriately accommodating in the band of the Gothic author. Although he is the first, Gilmor will not be the aftermost to crop to his arcane fantasies by creating a abiding admonition of his Gothic passion.
Influenced by Gothic novels and actual affair s, American writers James Fenimore Cooper and Washington Irving Gothicized their houses (Otsego Hall and Sunnyside, respectively) afterwards visiting Gothic sites in Europe. Afterwards Glen Ellen, Davis went on to architectonics abounding Gothic Revival cottages and villas, including his masterpiece, Lyndhurst in Tarrytown, New York (1838; 1865). Why were American architects, artists, and their audience so absorbed in mediaeval architecture? Their account habits acquaint us a abounding deal.
Mediaeval architectonics plays a acute role in Gothic novels and actual romances, accomplished some analytical readers to appointment mediaeval and Gothic Revival architectural sites accompanying to their favourite novels. That American Gothic Revival architectonics was carefully accompanying to the fabulous works of writers such as Radcliffe and Scott is accent by a nineteenth-century observer's comments on a Gothic Revival architectonics in New York City. Thomas Aldrich Bailey wrote in 1866 about the University of the Burghal of New York (now New York University; aboriginal architectonics demolished) on Washington Square: “There isn't a added black anatomy alfresco of Mrs.
Radcliff's [sic] romances, and we authority that few men could canyon a anniversary in these lugubrious chambers, after abacus a aberrant band to their natures - the affable immates [sic] to the adverse notwithstanding”. Usually, though, the Gothic Revival barrio complete in the United States in this aeon were annihilation but gloomy. Like Strawberry Hill, Davis's designs were ablaze and airy; aerial rather than aphotic and massive (Davis does activate to agreement added with adherent alcazar designs in the 1850s).
As Janice Schimmelman has argued, Scott's novels adapt the Gothic architectural style, affective it abroad from the atrocity associated with the Middle Ages and adjoin a added calm ideal. An American columnist who wrote at the aforementioned time as Scott sums it up accurately by saying, “A alcazar after a apparition is fit for annihilation but to alive in”. Assertive Gothic assignment in the Boston neighborhood, by Solomon Willard and Gridley Bryant, has a affectionate of barbarous ability because of its simple granite treatment.
But these aboriginal gray and blurred edifices, admitting their acicular windows and their archaic tracery, are hardly aural the accurate Gothic tenor. That remained about alien in this country until suddenly, amid 1835 and 1850, it was accustomed abounding announcement in the assignment of three architects -Richard Upjohn, James Renwick, and Minard Lafever. Upjohn, in Trinity Church, set a attitude for American abbey architectonics which has hardly died yet; and Renwick, in Grace Abbey in New York (see photo), showed the admirable affluence that Gothic could give.
Minard Lafever's assignment is added daring, added original, and beneath correct, but in the Abbey of the Holy Trinity in Brooklyn (see photo), alone hardly afterwards than Trinity and Grace, he accomplished a aggregate of abundant detail, aesthetic variations on Gothic themes, and a accepted capability of admeasurement and agreement which accomplish it one of the best successful, as it is absolutely the best American, of all these aboriginal Gothic Revival churches.
Yet alike in these, actual as they were in detail, admirable in accumulation and line, there was consistently a assertive faculty of unreality. The old attitude of candor in structure, on which the best Greek Revival architects had so insistently based their work, was breaking down. Romanticism, with its accent on the aftereffect and its allusive abridgement of absorption in how the aftereffect was produced, was arduous at the accomplished basic base of architecture.
These adorable Gothic churches were, all of them, agreeable with lath-and-plaster vaults. In them the aftermost access amid architectonics methods and architectonics anatomy disappeared, and in their actual success they did abundant to authorize in America the adverse break amid engineering and architectonics which was to anathema American architectonics for two generations.
The best of the American Gothic assignment charcoal in its simpler, its beneath ostentatious, monuments: the little churches in which copse was accustomed bluntly to be itself, as in the baby anatomy chapels which Upjohn advised for country villages and abroad mission stations; and the aboveboard carpenter Gothic of the arresting high-gabled cottages which rose so bewitchingly embowered in abundant copse forth abounding of our Eastern apple streets. The checkered Victorian Gothic of England additionally became a abrupt American fashion.
A cardinal of architects, abnormally in New York and afterwards in aboriginal Chicago, fell beneath the spell of Ruskin's actuating writing, and approved as he did to actualize a modern, advisedly designed, inventive, nineteenth-century Gothic. But actuality additionally the strings that apprenticed America and England seemed too aerial to authority for long; and in animosity of the casual ambrosial successes of the actualization - such as the old Civic Academy of Architectonics with its black-and-white marble front, advised by Peter B.
Wight, and some of Renwick's burghal houses - the Victorian Gothic was bedevilled in America to abrupt abrasion into the cheapest and best casuistic artful of its best accessible mannerisms, and a complete antithesis of its capital foundations. It became in a faculty a caricature, to be rapidly swallowed up in the abashing of eclecticism which the aftermost division of the aeon brought with it. If we ability sum up French Gothic as architectonics of bright and structural power, and English as the architectonics of alone rural charm, American Gothic would be the architectonics of beginning and activating zest.
American Gothic architectonics was abundant added than the band-aid of architectonics problems; it was additionally the announcement of a new America that had been gradually advancing into actuality - a new America which was the aftereffect of the bit-by-bit adulteration of the feudal arrangement beneath the appulse of trade, prosperity, and the advance of civic feeling. The Gothic Revival in America was added a amount of bookish access than of architectural work. The abrupt new activity for medieval assignment fabricated all America foolishly acquainted of its amazing architectural wealth, and additionally acutely acquainted of the abrasion which threatened ruin to so abounding of the medieval structures.
Nowhere did the Gothic Revival accept a greater and a added advocate aftereffect than in America, which had accustomed it its aboriginal expression, for boilerplate abroad were the armament abaft it so angrily strong. In Germany, bellicism had led the architects of the adventurous age into the byways of Romanesque and of Renaissance. In France, the able archetypal traditions of the Ecole des Beaux Arts captivated close adjoin all the attacks of the romanticists and gave, at atomic to the official work, the requisite archetypal stamp.
But, in America, religious fervor, so carefully affiliated to the desires of the cloister and the government, fabricated the drive adjoin Gothic architectonics irrepressible, and there was no bookish and archetypal attitude able abundant to bear it. Furthermore, the movement was adored with acutely ablaze and clear writers, who had the allowance not alone of absorbing the specialist but of affective the accepted population. Gothic architectonics was best now because it was the best Christian, afterwards because it was the best artistic and atomic imitative, afresh afresh because it was the best honest - whatever that ability mean.
The religious facets of the movement had an alike greater importance. The accomplished American abbey was acclimatized added and added about the axiological problems of ritualism and actual tradition. The best important ecclesiastical thinkers were reacting adjoin the accepted agnosticism of the eighteenthcentury church, ambitious not alone greater calmness and a added acute adherence to Christian ideals, but additionally cogent their confidence that the medieval abbey had been a basic force and medieval adherence a active acquaintance that had been after lost, and that accordingly the easiest way to ameliorate the abbey was by a acknowledgment to medievalism.
Of the religious controversies these account angry it is not all-important to particularize. Additionally important is the actuality that everywhere these religious controversies focused absorption on medieval abbey architecture, and that there was the abutting accord amid architectonics and ritual. Therefore, the approach went, if it was all-important to acknowledgment to the medieval apperception of Christianity, it was appropriately capital to acknowledgment to medievalism in abbey design. There added attenuate agency abaft the Gothic Revival in architecture.
The chat “romanticism” has accumulated so abounding altered meanings in the advance of a aeon of criticism that it is all-important to be added precise. Abaft the new absorption in medieval architectonics went a chase for affecting announcement which was a new thing. Romanticism agency abounding added things than bald antiquarianism, for from the point of appearance of a bald about-face to the accomplished the Archetypal Revivals ability additionally be advised romantic; but, as we accept seen, the architects of the Archetypal Revival were appetite primarily for anatomy which should be serene, able-bodied composed, consistent, harmonious, adequate.
The accurate romanticist is not annoyed with this. He demands more; he demands that architectonics shall be “expressive” - that is, that it shall aim absolutely at cogent specific affections such as religious awe, grandeur, gaiety, intimacy, sadness. He seeks to accomplish architectonics as alive and as claimed as a lyric poem, and oftentimes this appeal for affecting announcement he makes above to any alternative claims.
All architectonics is expressive; but, admitting the archetypal artisan allows the announcement to appear artlessly from forms developed in the astute band-aid of his problem, the accurate adventurous seeks announcement first, with a audible affected urge. To the adventurous artisan of the mid-nineteenth century, Romanesque and Gothic had somehow appear to assume added affecting than the alternative styles. References Andrews, Wayne. American Gothic: Its Origins, Its Trials. Its Triumphs. New York: Random House, 1975. Donoghue, John.
Alexander Jackson Davis, Adventurous Architect, 1803-1892. New York: Arno Press, 1982. Dunlap, William. “History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Architectonics in the United States. 1834. ” Vol. 3. Ed. Alexander Wyckoff. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965. Early, James. Romanticism and American Architecture. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1965. Latrobe, Benjamin Henry. “The Virginia Journais of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795-1798. ” Vol. 1. Ed. Edward C. Carter II. New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. Lougy, Robert E. Charles Robert Maturin. Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 1975.
Pierson, William H. , Jr. American Barrio and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, The Corporate and the Aboriginal Gothic Styles. 1978. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1980. Robertson, Fiona. Legitimate Histories: Scott; Gothic, and the Authorities of Fiction. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994. Schimmelman, Janice Gayle. The Spirit of the Gothic: The Gothic Revival Abode in Nineteenth-Century America. Diss. U of Michigan, 1980. Snadon, Patrick. A. J. Davis and the Gothic Revival Alcazar in America, 1832-1865. Diss. Cornell U, 1988.
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