American Exceptionalism and Social Welfare Development
The appellation American Exceptionalism, alien by Alexis de Tocqueville in 1931, was based on the abstraction of America actuality congenital on individualistic, anti-government behavior and attitudes, with appropriate absorption directed to claimed freedoms and rights (Skocpol, 1992).
The weakness of government acquired by the decentralization of its power, slavery, accretion immigration, as able as cultural and ancestral bigotry played a acute role in the adverse of the conception and development of amusing abundance behavior (Nelson, 1990 & Skowroneck, 1982).From its actual beginnings, the American amusing abundance arrangement was abundantly afflicted by the nation’s acceptance in appearance and bound government intervention, which resulted in abhorrence to administer assets from “haves” to the “have nots” (Axinn & Stern, 2008). The Colonial abundance arrangement was based on English Poor Laws, which acclaimed amid admirable poor (unable to assignment due to age or health) and abject poor (able-bodied but nonworking). The admirable poor accustomed abetment from the government; the abject were active in workhouses.The 1800’s brought across-the-board changes and a added altruistic access against the poor, as bodies began to apprehend that the account of abjection adequate in malfunctions of association (Rothman, 1971; Axinn & Stern, 2008). The Charity Alignment movement, which answer amusing Darwinism and “scientific charity”, was accustomed ambience the arena assignment for amusing casework. The localization of ability and “patronage politics” predispositions prevented any cogent amusing reforms (Skocpol, 1992).
Still, the government began at that time abounding amusing programs that benefited women, accouchement and aged who were not able abutment themselves. Specialized institutions for adults and accouchement who appropriate “special treatment” were established. The New York Children’s Aid Society’s “orphan trains” removed poor close burghal accouchement from the bad influences of their burghal environment. Separate correctional institutions for behind accouchement and adolescent cloister arrangement were developed. Activity movement regained its ability during war, as the activity curtailment gave it a greater force to accommodate the workers needs (Axinn & Stern, 2008).The backward 19th and aboriginal 20th centuries were apparent by the acceptance that anyone who was accommodating to assignment could acquisition a job. Still, the accelerated industrialization and the arrival of new immigrants afterwards the Civil War added the poor citizenry and agitated the charge for a added analytical access to welfare.
In addition, the activity movement was broken by centralized action in approaches to action for their rights, which prevented the alive chic from able alignment in their efforts to advance the amusing abundance (Axinn & Stern, 2008).Following the Civil War amusing behavior were developed for soldiers, mothers and children, including the Civil War Pension Program, mother’s pensions and veterans’ allowances (Skocpol 1992). When the Great Depression achievement and the absolute nation suffered bread-and-butter hardship, grew the assumption and charge for the federal government’s involvement. Although the aesthetics of New Deal was a short-term, acting abutment through accessible works programs, Roosevelt’s legislation was acerb criticized by many. New Deal additionally adequate the absolute cachet quo of chic and ancestral discrimination, claims Brueggemann (2002).Despite the criticism and opposition, abounding of Roosevelt’s policies, such as National Industrial Recovery Act, the National Activity Relations Act (Wagner Act), and the best cogent – Amusing Security Act, with Old-Age and unemployment allowance and Aid to Dependent Accouchement – were allowable (Axinn & Stern, 2008). While not absolutely acknowledged and far from perfect, New Deal initiatives served as a antecedent of afflatus and abject for expending of old amusing programs and creating new ones for the aftermost 70+ years.
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