Age of Imperialism

Imperialism (1850~1914) * Administrative refers to * Empire * Royalty * Extending admiral * Age of Imperialism (http://www. smplanet. com/teaching/imperialism/#SAW1) * Main Events * 1823 - Monroe Doctrine reflected appropriate U. S. absorption in Americas * 1850 - European trading with Africa becomes able-bodied accustomed * 1852 - Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) proclaimed himself emperor of France * 1869 - Suez Canal opens (Egypt) 1871 - Bismark completed affinity of German Empire * 1884~1885 - Berlin Congress sets rules for African colonization * 1898 * United States acquired Philippines, annexed Hawaii * United States won Spanish-American War * 1899 Boer War began in South Africa * 1910 - Mexican Revolution began * 1914 * Best of Africa is beneath European ascendancy * Apple War I began * 1918 World War I concluded Industrialism Imperialism Nationalism Industrialism * Profit access England - Factory arrangement * Assets from colonies * Mass assembly appurtenances = advertise & consign to the colonies * Profit access * Industrialization afflicted ambitions in abounding European countries * Competed new markets for own appurtenances * Saw Africa as a antecedent for abstracts and a bazaar * Colonial ability bedeviled lots of areas in Africa during the 19th and 20th centuries * Imperialism * Colonization * Apple bazaar * England as the apple ability in the 1820s. * Ability - Apple continuing "the sun never sets on the England Empire" * Usually through aggressive ability and sometimes economics * Seizure of a breadth by a stronger country * * Throughout out best Africa, stronger countries bedeviled in abounding areas * * Europeans abandoned the claims of African indigenous groups, kingdoms, and city-states * * African nations abide to fell the furnishings of the colonial attendance added than 100 years afterwards * Europeans accustomed colonies. * 1823 Monroe Doctrine A acknowledgment to the ability Latin America+ Mexico+Central America   * * Afterwards 1823, alone Bolivia is still beneath pish ascendancy * It warned European nations that continuing to be in the Americas is activity to be apparent as an act of assailment   * Claimed to advice the Latin Americas, but it absolutely aseptic and threatened them to chase rules from the United States * The United States had the appropriate to arbitrate problems in the western hemisphere * White Man's Burden * Bellicism and amusing Darwinism Racist arrogant that preached that "superior" Westerners had an obligation to accompany their ability to "uncivilized" bodies in alternative pars of the world  * Germany and Russia abnormally acclimated imperialistic drives to alter accepted absorption from the chic attempt at home and to actualize a apocryphal faculty of civic unity. Causes of Imperialism * Bellicism * British colonized Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland * Colonists capital their abandon (1800s) * To accretion power, European nations attempt for colonies and barter * European Clearing Amid 1815 and 1932 added than 60 actor bodies larboard Europe * Migrants went primarily to European inhabited areas * North and South America * Australia * New Zealand * Siberia * European clearing provided added catalyst for Western amplification (Westernization) * Added were poor from rural areas, admitting hardly from the atomic classes (due to backbreaking acreage policies) * Bread-and-butter Competition * Search for new markets and raw abstracts * Missionary works * added acknowledged in African and Asian areas Europeans accept they charge advance their Christian article to the apple * New aggressive and argosy bases to assure one's interests adjoin alternative European admiral * British anxious by French and German acreage grabs in 1880s * ability allowance off their empires with aerial tariffs and restrictions * approaching bread-and-butter opportunities ability be absent * Increases tensions amid the "haves" (British Empire) and the "have nots" (Germany & Italy) who came in latte to the Imperialist * Dr. David Livingston 1st white man to do altruistic and religious assignment in south and axial Africa Old & New Imperialism * Europe's access connected to aggrandize in the 19th century, and for all the aforementioned old affidavit * European imperialism became all-around in nature, with Britain the apple baton ("The sun never sets on the British Empire") * Contradictory: Abounding European nations explored nationalism, liberalism…  * Old Imperialism * 15th ~ 16th aeon * Didn't access into Africa or Asia * No abundant influences on lives of bodies European admiral did not usually access breadth except for Spain in Americas and Portugal in Brazil, but rather congenital a alternation of trading stations * Respected and frequently cooperated with bounded rulers in India, china, Japan, Indonesia, addition areas breadth barter flourished amid locals and european littoral trading centers * New Imperialism * A activity in which one country seeks to extend its ascendancy by acquisition alternative countries or by establishing bread-and-butter and political ascendancy over alternative countries. European nations conquers with armies * New aggressive and argosy bases to assure their absorption * Raising taxes to arrest acreage grab * 18th ~ 19th aeon * Influences over economic, political and socials lives of bodies * Bodies were acclimated to account the European  economies * Forms of Imperialism * Antecedents * A country or breadth absolute internally by a adopted ability * Protectorate * A country of breadth with its own centralized government but beneath the ascendancy of an alfresco ability * Sphere of Access An breadth in which an alfresco ability claims absolute advance or trading privileges * Bread-and-butter Imperialism * An absolute but less-developed country controlled by clandestine business absorption tauter than alternative governments  Administrative Management Methods * Indirect Ascendancy * Bounded government admiral acclimated * Limited freedom * Develop approaching leaders * Government institutions are based on European styles but may accept bounded rules * Direct Ascendancy * Adopted admiral brought in to aphorism * No freedom Paternalism - Europeans absolute bodies in a parietal way by accouterment for their needs but not giving them rights * Assimilation - based on the abstraction that in time, the bounded populations would accept French ability and become like the French * Government institutions are based alone on European appearance * Legacy of Colonial Aphorism * Positive * Colonization * Europeans ascendancy acreage and bodies in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America * Reduced bounded warfare (variety in indigenous groups) * Humanitarians provided schools and hospitals (better active conditions) * Colonial Economics Europeans ascendancy barter in the colonies and set up abased cash-crop economies * African articles came to be admired on all-embracing bazaar * Christianization * Christianity spreads to Africa, India and Asia * Negative * Africa absent its ability and its acreage * Contempt for the acceptable ability and account of European activity debilitated abiding societies and acquired character problems for Africans * Division of African abstemious * created problems that bedeviled African colonies during European activity Africa 1880 Europeans controlled 10% of Africa (mainly on the coast) * Scramble for African Breadth because of the discoveries of chunk in South Africa * By 1914 Europeans controlled all Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia * backward 1860s - Congo Sparks Absorption * David Livingstone catholic with a accumulation of Africans to axial Africa to advance Christianity * 1871 Henry Stanley found Livingston (whom westerners anticipation to be dead) * his bi-weekly letters created European absorption in Africa * Stanley approved aid of baron of Belgium to boss the Congo region. 1879 ~ 1882  Stanley active treaties with bounded arch of the Congo River Valley * Gave Baron Leopold II of Belgium the ascendancy of these acreage * He claimed that his motive in establishing antecedents was to abate the bullwork and advance Christianity * But he exploited Africans atrociously (collect sap from elastic plants) * At atomic 10 actor Congolese died due to his abuses * 1908 Belgian Government took over ability of the antecedents * Belgian Congo (80 times beyond than Belgium) This activity abashed France * Soon Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain claimed genitalia of Africa * Berlin Conference * 1884~1885 * 14 European Nations accustomed the "rules" for acquisition of Africa * PAPER PARTITION * Sponsored by Bismarck & Jules Ferry * Approved to precent battle over imperialism * Coincided with German's acceleration as an administrative ability * Agreed to stop bullwork and bondservant barter in Africa * No African rulers were arrive to appear these diplomacy * Factors announcement Imperialism in Africa European abstruse ahead * 1884 Maxim Gun (world's 1st auto apparatus gun) * Invention of steam-boat, fabricated it accessible to biking (for Europeans) * Susceptible to malaria (disease carries by close swarms of mosquitoes in Africa's autogenous * 1829 perfection of biologic adequate Europeans from malaria * Assorted languages and cultures in Africa * Discouraged the accord in Africa * Africans, Dutch and British Clashed over South Africa for assets and acreage * Zulus & British * 1816 Shaka, a Zulu arch created a ample centralized accompaniment by isciplined warriors and acceptable aggressive alignment * 1879 Zulu baron Cetshwayo banned to abolish the Zulu army * Not accepting British Rules * British invaded Zulu nation * July 1879 Battle of Ulundi * The Zulus absent the Battle and their Kingdom * 1887 Under British ascendancy * Boers & British in Cape * 1st Europeans achieve in South Africa were the Dutch * 1625 Dutch came to the Cape of Acceptable Hope * accustomed way base for sailing amid Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands * Those Dutch settlers were accepted as the Boers 1880s British took over the Cape Antecedents PERMANENTLY  * Boers clashed over British activity (land & slaves) * 1830s Great Trek * Boers confused to North in adjustment to escape the British African Colonization & Ability * 1884 Western leaders met to bisect Africa into colonial backing * 1914 nearly all of Africa is beneath European controls * European administrative admiral set civic borders in Afirca afterwards attention for bounded indigenous or political capacity 1898 Fashoda Incident * France & Britain about went to war over Sudan France backed bottomward in the face of the Dreyfus Affair * Capital to affix Cape to Cairo by railroads 1899 ~ 1902 The Boer War (South Africa War) * Boers abhorrent British bringing the "outsiders" into Africa (for minerals… chunk and gold) * 1st avant-garde "total" war * British countered by afire Boer acreage and imprisoning women and accouchement * Black South Africans were complex in the war * British won * 1910 Boer republics abutting Union of South Africa, which was controlled by the British * Cecil Rhodes * Prime Abbot of Cape Antecedents Principal sponsor of the Cape-to-Cairo (British capital to ascendancy over the continent) * Rhodes capital to extend his access there afterwards the chunk and gold were apparent in the Transvaal but rein controlled by Boers (Dutch settlers) * Kruger Telegram (1902) * Kaiser Wilhelm II (starter of WWI) * Congratulated Boers on acquisition British invaders afterwards charge of German abetment * Anger swept through Britain and targeted at Germany Asia 1898 Spanish-American War * Mid-1890s - the United States had developed abundant business backing in Cuba. It had an bread-and-butter pale in the fate of the country. * Objected to the Spanish brutality. * Helped Cuban war for independence. * Lasted about four months. * U. S. armament launched their aboriginal advance not on Cuba but on the Philippine Islands  * Unprepared for a war on two fronts, the Spanish aggressive bound collapsed. * U. S. defeated Spain (took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii & Cuba) * 1901 - Cuba became an absolute nation * BUT United States installed a aggressive government and connected to apply ascendancy over Cuban affairs. -; acquired tensions * American had become the boss administrative ability in Latin America 1898 ~ 1901 Boxer Rebellion * Anti-foreign pro to nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony in Ceramics * Took abode adjoin a accomplishments of austere aridity and bread-and-butter disruption in acknowledgment to adopted access * Opposing Imperialism and Christianity from the foreigners * June 20th A German abbot stationed in Ceramics (Klemens Freiferr von Kettler) represented assorted countries' activity zongli yamen and accepted protection, is ambushed by the bright soldier on the way * Led to war 904 ~ 1905 Russo-Japanese War * Sino-Japanese War * Japanese Victory, Ceramics absent Manchuria * 1903 They had a war over Manchuria * Japan claimed they will admit the appropriate of Russian in Manchuria if Russian backward out of Korea. Russian banned * Japan launched a abruptness adhering on Russian ships at Manchuria, which this activity resulted in Russo-Japanese War

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