Advent of the democratic dispensation in south africa


The appearance of the autonomous allotment in South Africa has brought about cogent changes in the political, amusing and bread-and-butter spheres of the country. As a apple of society, the apprenticeship area too has been bent up in the ebb and breeze of these autonomous changes (Zatman, Florio and Sikorski, 1997:3). Consequently new educational laws and behavior that are connected with the new allotment accept been put in place. Although the transformation from ageism apprenticeship to Outcomes-Based Apprenticeship (OBE) was apprenticed by the autonomous demands, its accomplishing is not a forgone conclusion.

According to (ANC, 1995:8), “education and apprenticeship systems are, aloft all, animal and amusing institutions with all their capabilities and limitations”. Apprenticeship institutions charge to be managed. Unlike machines, they cannot be programmed for assertive outcomes and again set to run by themselves. Academy principals calm with accession associates of the Academy Administration Teams (SMTs) as change agents and key cadre in schools, are faced with the claiming of managing these changes. Unfortunately abounding variables in the action of change are either conflicting or cannot be controlled (Pudi, 2005:148). However, it is important to accept the roles that SMTs accept to comedy for the able administration of the educational changes in schools. It is because of this that the roles and able administration of change in schools through SMTs is both important and necessary. The demands of a new apprenticeship allotment accept in aftereffect fabricated all-important a archetype about-face in the administration of schools.

1.1.1 A archetype about-face in the administration of schools

The accession of OBE, the Integrated Affection Administration Systems (IQMS), the National Class Account (NCS) and accession educational changes in schools fabricated acute a adapted or afflicted teaching access from educators. Added decidedly able accomplishing of OBE requires development of new administration strategies and competencies from all the associates of the SMTs. However the columnist is anxious about whether the accepted associates of SMTs are abundantly able with the all-important abilities that will accredit them to administrate the accepted turbulences in schools. According to Zatman et al. (1997:3) it is acceptable that academy managers today are faced with a abstract bearings of aggravating to amuse the needs and requirements of South Africa`s assorted population.

Gultig and Butler (1999:7) accent that the administration development programmes should no best focus on academy principals only, but on accession average managers as well. These authors advance that beneath altitude of decentralization and a cogent about-face appear school-based management, the focus should primarily be on the broader and added across-the-board compassionate of apprenticeship administration development. Academy development programmes should not be apparent as the bottle of the few seniors at the top of the academy administration structure. To accommodated the needs of the present autonomous society, academy principals and the blow of the administration aggregation are accepted to be complex in cocky development programmes and advance accession stakeholders in the school. The closing could be associates of the association who should affection in academy babyminding structures.

According to Gultig and Butler (1999: vii) the archetype about-face in the administration of schools has afflicted the way in which educators as classroom managers accept to administrate their classes. The dictates of OBE stresses aggregation assignment and cantankerous appointment with the learners.

DoE (2002:08) credibility out that back OBE is focused on the outcomes, and that the action of accepting these outcomes are in aspect different, there accept to be altered agency of managing not abandoned the outcomes but additionally the action of accession at these outcomes.

In the classroom, the OBE access has led to a archetype about-face from abecedary ascendancy to alive accord of learners as stakeholders in the teaching and acquirements process. Academy managers are adapted to ensure that educators apparatus the participatory access of teaching effectively.

Gultig and Butler (1999:29) accent that above-mentioned to the address of the autonomous association in South Africa, administration and administration practices in some institutions including schools, were mainly focused on how calmly educators accomplished their assigned duties after giving them befalling for adroitness and innovation. According to Bertram, Gultig and Ndlovu (1999:61) in the present apprenticeship allotment associates of SMTs and educators are accustomed abandon to participate in academy administration and apprenticeship of the learners. Accord is answer by the architecture of the Republic of South Africa and accession accordant administration and administration models that are not abandoned participatory but additionally advance democracy.

According to Seller (2001:257) the present OBE access “encourages an accessible academy altitude that promotes administration of challenges, a cross-pollination of account and collaborative controlling which is basal for aerial assurance as able-bodied as added adeptness and effectiveness”. This access emphasizes alignment of academy administration with the autonomous principles. The focus of this abstraction is on investigating whether the associates of SMTs in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre are able of affair the authoritative expectations of the accepted autonomous association that is brought by educational changes such the accomplishing of OBE in schools.

In the present era, academy managers are accepted to become acknowledging to the about-face needs that are imposed by the autonomous changes and educational transformation. Legislations and academy behavior are cardinal in accomplishing this ideal.

1.1.2 The appulse of the new behavior on the roles of academy managers

The accession of the present apprenticeship behavior and legislations appeal associates of SMTs to access new authoritative competencies that will accredit them to apparatus these behavior finer (Gultig and Butler, 1999:64). The accession of the accepted apprenticeship Acts such as the South African Schools (Act 84 of 1996), with its accent on alive accord of parents in academy governance, has assuredly impacted on the roles of academy managers.

Section 9(3) and 9(4) of the Architecture (S.A Constitution, 1996a) agree that “no actuality (including learners) may be anon or alongside discriminated adjoin on the abject of race, gender, colour, indigenous or amusing origin.” This has in allotment led to the accession of the accepted acceptance action in South African schools. The aftereffect to the present acceptance action which encourages schools to accessible up the doors for acquirements to all after discrimination, has led to an added assortment of abecedarian population. This assortment can actualize ancestral and discipline-related problems that can claiming the authoritative capabilities of the accepted academy managers.

Lemmer and Squelch (1993:27) agenda that academy managers are faced with learners of altered citizenry groups and a multicultural ethos. These authors added point out that the accession of this non abominable acceptance action was an attack to lath apprenticeship so as to lath learners from all ancestral groups. However, the appulse of this acceptance action on the authoritative capabilities of academy managers cannot be larboard to chance.

One of the accession behavior that appulse on academy managers in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre is the action on anatomical punishment. This is declared in area 10(1) of the South African Schools Act (SASA, 1996b). The Act stipulates that “no actuality may administrate anatomical abuse at a academy to a learner.” This can be interpreted as advancement animal address and account to learners as animal beings. Learners are accordingly adequate from actuality advised in a cruel,

inhumane and aspersing address that may accept been connected with the antecedent allotment and its accordant administration practices. However, the appulse of the abolishment of anatomical abuse has created austere antidotal problems which appeal academy managers in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre to become added artistic with absorption to the appliance of adapted accession antidotal measures for the aliment of conduct and the able teaching and acquirements in schools. The (DoE 2001:6) cites poor conduct as one of the manifestations of abridgement of transformation of administration practices to accommodate to the about-face times and environment.

School management, from class to non curricular activities is accomplished as a participatory endeavour area all stakeholders are not abandoned beside but additionally actively involved.

1.1.3 Participatory administration access

School managers as leaders ascendancy affecting positions in schools. They are appropriately answerable with the albatross to administrate educational changes in schools in the province. In their efforts to adjust changes with educational reforms, academy managers today are accepted to accept administration and administration practices which are connected with the autonomous principles.

Since this access of administration requires alive accord of stakeholders in schools, it impacts on the authoritative roles of academy managers. Stakeholders such as parents were included in the babyminding of schools above-mentioned to the present autonomous allotment as assured in area 9 annex 1 of South African Schools Act (SASA, 1996b). However they were generally not provided opportunities to participate actively in alive the roles that they were declared to play. In responding to the demands of the autonomous society, this Act promotes parents not to be the attenuate breed in schools anymore.

Through the South African Schools Act (SASA, 1996b), parents are not abandoned answerable with the albatross for the apprenticeship of their accouchement but are additionally allowable by law to participate actively in academy governance. This implies that the accepted academy managers charge to comedy the role of architecture able bases for ancestor accord in schools. In adjustment to convenance participatory administration advisedly academy managers are accepted to booty parents on lath on affairs that appeal their attention.

Zatman et al. (1997:8) accompaniment that academy managers as advocates of change are faced with a assortment of armament from aural and alfresco the academy arena. Academy managers are accepted to absorb the parents decidedly associates of the Academy Governing Anatomy (SGB) in affairs such cartoon academy account and development of the mission account of the schools. Apart from the captivation of parents, the ambit for SMTs is added broadcast by their captivation with learners and accession conflicting associates of the accessible and audience who accept a pale in the apprenticeship


The column ageism era in South Africa has dawned with amazing changes that apparent themselves acutely aural the apprenticeship arena. Schools as apparatus of the apprenticeship arrangement are faced with the claiming of implementing these changes in a allusive way. As declared in area 1.1.1, educational changes such as the accession of the OBE and NCS, IQMS and accession changes that are brought by the about-face needs of the accepted autonomous association accept been enacted. These changes crave academy managers to accept new authoritative roles and responsibility. They are declared to act as leaders and managers with the capabilities to administrate the educational changes (Lombard, 2003:3). Unfortunately there is no action certificate or norms and standards that absolutely adviser academy managers on how to administrate schools and these educational changes.

The researcher realizes that there is not yet a action that serves as a adviser for academy managers on the administration of schools and the accepted changes that characterizes them (schools). The Apprenticeship Action Act (Act 27 of 1996) which focuses on the roles of educators has been fatigued to serve as advice apropos the albatross of educators as classroom managers.

Lombard (2003:3) argues that academy managers of the pre-democratic era were mainly able with the abilities to exercise ascendancy and accomplish authoritative duties. This implies that their antecedent academic training that able them to become agents did not accouter them (school managers) with the adeptness and the accommodation to assassinate authoritative roles, decidedly in change management. The training able them to administrate classroom environments that prevailed during the pre-democratic era rather than to administrate the changes accomplished in beside schools.

From these discussions, it is axiomatic that there is little appliance amid the abilities that are bedevilled by the present academy managers in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre and new authoritative expectations that they are adapted to comedy in their attempts to assassinate their authoritative roles in schools

Based on these limitations, the researcher is not assertive whether the accepted academy managers in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre will be able of managing and transforming schools in accordance with the demands of the autonomous principles.

It is these uncertainties that accept led the researcher to undertake an assay into the roles that associates of SMTs in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre comedy in their efforts to administrate educational changes.


When the botheration beneath altercation is analysed and evaluated, the catechism arises on whether associates of Academy Administration Teams in Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo amphitheatre are able of arena their roles in managing the changes in schools. From this, the botheration account for this abstraction can be declared as:

The roles that academy managers charge to comedy in managing educational changes in schools in Mogodumo amphitheatre in the Limpopo province.


The aim of this abstraction is to investigate the role that academy managers comedy in managing the educational changes in the Mogodumo amphitheatre in the Limpopo province.


1.5.1 Importance and alarm

The abstraction focuses primarily on the roles that academy managers are declared to comedy in the administration of educational changes. Able administration of schools today requires academy administrator to accept adeptness of the new authoritative roles that are apprenticed by the accepted educational changes.

This abstraction is appropriately accounted all-important for academy personnel, and in accurate associates of SMTs. It is because this abstraction intends to accouter them with the adeptness of the absolute roles that they (school managers) are accepted to comedy in the transforming apprenticeship arrangement in South Africa.

This adeptness is adapted by academy managers if they are to administrate changes in schools effectively.

The affectionate of adeptness that this adventure intends to betrayal is accounted important not abandoned for the cocky advance of academy managers, but additionally for the development and the advance of the accomplished school. Accession associates of agents will additionally account from academy managers through school-based in-service training that focuses on change management.

The present academy managers are faced with the transforming apprenticeship arrangement in South Africa (DoE 1996:1). This abstraction is accordingly all-important for it does not abandoned focus on the roles of academy managers but additionally has a address on the account of changes and the new behavior in education. Adeptness of these behavior is accounted capital for the accepted academy managers because it (knowledge) is admired as one of the prerequisites for the accustomed beheading of their new roles. As Morgan (1988:2) explains, academy managers charge to access the abilities and adeptness that are all-important to accord with the after-effects of transformation as it unfolds itself over time.

1.5.2 Contribution to the abstraction

It is accepted that the empiric allegation from the sampled academy managers will accord to the anatomy of adeptness of change administration and the authoritative responsibilities of the beside academy managers. It should be acclaimed that admitting generalizations cannot be fabricated from the empiric findings, the after-effects of the interviews with some of the associates of SMTs in Mogodumo amphitheatre are hoped to put to ablaze the absolute roles that academy managers comedy in their accomplishment to administrate educational transformation.

It is hoped that this abstraction will anatomy a abject for a bigger compassionate of the way the accepted educational changes appeal for the transformation of the authoritative roles of academy managers during this era. Morgan (1988: xii) emphasizes that ambidextrous with the after-effects of change requires managers to administer specific competencies that will accredit them to analyze “fracture lines”.


On the abject of the attributes of this abstraction which requires the researcher to accept to the exact description of the adventures of the respondents in their accustomed environment, the researcher has autonomous to conduct this abstraction aural the qualitative paradigm. This access requires assay techniques such as the account that absorb amusing alternation amid the researcher and the respondents rather than instruments and statistical methods that are accepted for the quantitative assay architecture (Hoberg, 1999:80). He added states that the qualitative assay access emphasizes the action of the researcher in the accustomed ambience of the respondents and allows for actor ascertainment as able-bodied as acquisition contiguous advice from the respondents. On this basis, the researcher visited the sampled schools in the Mogodumo amphitheatre in Limpopo province.

The ambition was to accept the lived adventures apropos the roles and the strategies that associates of the SMTs administer in their efforts to adjust the envisaged changes with the accepted academy environments.


For the accessibility of the clairvoyant and to abstain misunderstanding, assertive concepts will be explained. The purpose of the account is to action a bright compassionate of what anniversary abstraction agency as it is acclimated throughout this study.

1.7.1 Role

Hawkins (1984: 725) defines ‘role’ as “a person’s assignment or assignment in an undertaking”. Rabothata (1982:3) emphasizes that ‘roles’ are “duties and responsibilities accepted from a actuality application a assertive position in an institution”. Roles can comprise the tasks ascribed to or accepted of a actuality by advantage of the position held.

However, the researcher is of the appraisal that it should be kept in apperception that roles are not bound to anatomic status, nor does the actuality that one is casting in the role of a administrator during alive hours anticipate him/her from demography on accession roles such as a husband, president, ancestor et cetera, at some accession time.

Roles can additionally be authentic as a set of expectations imposed on educators and academy managers by the parents of learners, educationists and association in accepted (Pudi, 2005:147). From this perspective, it is axiomatic that the roles of educators are based on the way the parents, the association or the association apprehend educators to behave.

The chat ‘role’ will be acclimated in this abstraction to accredit to the tasks and responsibilities that the associates of SMTs are accepted to assassinate in their efforts to administrate the changes in the schools.

1.7.2 Academy Managers

The abstraction ‘school managers’ in this abstraction does not abandoned accredit to the principals as the arch of the academy but additionally to accession affiliate of SMTs in schools. Besides the actuality that principals are admired as the astral able educator, they do not administrate the schools alone. Accession cadre who administrate and advance the academy calm with the principals such as the Deputy Principals and the Heads of Departments (HODs) are additionally admired as managers. However it should be accustomed that in some schools abnormally baby schools, the chief agents may additionally be co-opted into the administration teams.

The concepts ‘school managers’ and associates of Academy Administration Teams or SMTs will be acclimated interchangeably in this study.

1.7.3 Competencies

Van der Bank (1996:3) defines ‘competencies’ as the abilities to do article in a satisfactory or able way. The abstraction ‘competencies’ is additionally authentic as the adeptness to do article abnormally abstinent adjoin a accepted (Karpike and Murphy, 1996:33).

1.7.4 Archetype

A ‘paradigm’ is a archetypal that forms a abject of article (Morgan 1988:129). According to Bertram et al. (1999: vii) the abstraction ‘paradigm’ refers to ‘a anatomy of reference’. A archetype is generally based on a set of account or a accurate way of authoritative faculty of the chat and ambidextrous with it.


Chapter 1: Introductory acclimatization

In this chapter, the accomplishments to the study, acquaintance of the problem, account of the problem, aims of the study, action of the study, and description of the assay alignment are discussed.

Chapter 2: The attributes of change and educational changes in schools

This affiliate contains abstract abstraction absorption on change. Accurate focus is accustomed the educational changes that appulse on the roles of associates of SMTs in the beside era.

Chapter 3: Educational changes in schools: the role of academy managers

Emphasis is placed on the roles that associates of the SMTs are declared to comedy in their attempts to accord with the changes in schools. The appulse of these changes on the academy will be discussed. The adapted able authoritative competencies are additionally be highlighted.

Chapter 4: Assay architecture and alignment

Planning of the assay is undertaken. The assay alignment calm with abstracts accumulating techniques acclimated in this assay is explained. The empiric assay and alignment are categorical in this chapter. The assay approach, the assay methods and abstracts accumulating techniques alive in this abstraction are explained.

Chapter 5: Empiric assay and allegation

Presentation and assay of the abstracts calm is undertaken. The allegation are discussed.

Chapter 6: Summary, recommendations and cessation

The absolute abstraction is summarized. Conclusions apropos what academy managers could do to adjust the situations in their schools are explained. Limitations of the abstraction are explained. Recommendations for added assay are stated.


This affiliate provided the acclimatization to the study. The account of the problem, aims and action for the abstraction were outlined. In the afterward affiliate the attributes of change and educational changes in schools will be studied.




Change appears to be an advancing accustomed action that tends to be assured in animal life. Seller (2001:255) stresses that the alarm for change in all aspects of the educational commitment arrangement has been continuous.

It has been declared in area 1.1 that the apprenticeship arrangement is South Africa has been restructured to accumulate beside with accepted civic demands. Amid assorted educational changes, restructuring of schools by the admittance and alive captivation of groups of stakeholders such as the SMTs, the SGBs and the Representative Council of Learners (RCLs) can be cited as some of the accepted changes in schools. These groups of stakeholders were not accustomed adventitious to comedy adapted roles that they were declared to comedy in best schools above-mentioned to the present autonomous era in South Africa. Able captivation of these stakeholders has a address on the authoritative anatomy of schools as well.

According to Bertram et al. (1999:vii) the democratization of the South African government encourages accord of stakeholders in the babyminding of the country. This demands a archetype about-face from absolute and non-democratic administration that was accepted during ageism era. It suggests that instead schools should be run in a participatory and cogitating manner.

In accession the alarm for advance of the affection of the acquirements has brought about a change in the agreeable and the adjustment of teaching and acquirements in schools.

As acicular out in area 1.1.1, there has been a move to learner-centered OBE and NCS which promotes participation, ambience assessable outcomes and connected appraisal of learners.

Fullan (1985:3) emphasizes that “it is no exaggeration to say that ambidextrous with change is ancient in the post-modern society”. Apart from these changes accession innovations accept been conflicting such as the abolishment of anatomical of punishment, the afflicted action apropos admissions, the norms and standards for academy allotment and abounding accession changes that cannot be covered aural the ambit of this study. All these accept approved that change is an assured abnormality decidedly aural the accepted autonomous society.

Based on the aloft discussion, it is axiomatic that change is one of the important phenomena that appulse on South African apprenticeship today. Appropriately above-mentioned to investigating the roles that the managers of schools are declared to comedy in adjustment the changes with the present academy environments, the researcher accounted it all-important to activate by defining change. A focus will additionally be on advertisement some of the accepted educational changes that appulse on the roles of academy managers today. The ambition is to accommodate a abject for compassionate some of the educational changes that accept brought about transformation of the authoritative responsibilities of academy managers in the present era.


Change can be authentic from altered perspectives. According to McLean (2005:16), change is authentic as the about-face of alone behaviour or the barter of one affair by another. On the accession hand, Credora (2001:01) angle change as the acceptance of accession area the ultimate ambition is to advance the outcomes through about-face of practice.

In accession to these definitions, one may point out that change can be apparent as a modification of absolute rules, regulations, ethics and acceptance systems. It may be admired as a way of acclimation behaviours or the way things are done. In short, change is accounted to be a movement abroad from the cachet quo.


2.3.1 Change as a action

Fullan (1985:392) addendum that change is not an accident but a process. This account is based on the actuality that change takes abode over a aeon of time. In the additional of the eight basal acquaint of the new archetype of change Fullan (1992:21) added suggests that “change is a journey, not a blueprint”. It is non-linear and it is loaded with uncertainties. Like afterlife and taxes, change is said to be an assured allotment of everyone’s life. In as abundant as one cannot run abroad from death, change cannot be avoided.

Resistance to change is not a solution. Change will abide alike if bodies abide it. Lombard (2003:28) provides a actual advantageous assay of the capital capacity on educational change and its management. He articular the afterward capital capacity apropos the attributes of change as a process:

• Change is structural and systematic. Any absolute change will generally affect the accomplished arrangement in that change in one allotment of an academy has a ripple aftereffect in accession parts.

• Change is a action that occurs over time. Because any changes booty abode overtime, authoritative change is not a detached event, it is not consecutive and it does not chase a beeline line.

• Change is multi-dimensional. Change encompasses a cardinal of altered ambit including resources, contents, process, evaluation, emotions, beliefs, ethics and principles.

• Change is beheld abnormally by assorted participants and accordingly evokes a ambit of responses. All those complex in the change action will accept their own acumen about it.

• Change administration requires advance in abstruse resources, animal resources, and administration of the process. The able administration of change requires adroitness and the adeptness to analyze and break problems.

Besides the altered angle on change, one could accompaniment that change is generally admired as a process. It is characterized by a alternation of commutual contest that may advance to about-face of values, behavior or approaches over a aeon of time. During the action of change, the success of anniversary date of development is bent by the success of the antecedent date (Lombard 2003:208). It should be acclaimed that, while one may beam assertive stages, change is not a beeline action which chase bright cut stages. Complex changes may necessitate a cardinal of stages for them to be sustained. Hence change depends on the admeasurement of its complication and accession contextual factors. It affects bodies and their perceptions abnormally on a continuum from absolute to negative.

2.3.2 The perceptions about change

Some academy cadre may ascendancy a absolute appearance of change while others may appearance it negatively. Garrett (1997:96) states that those who appearance it abnormally generally see it as a agency of dispatch abroad from one’s close arena (where one feels assured and is accustomed with the rules and is additionally

able to action comfortably), into addled area (where one feels afflictive and ambiguous about roles and relationships and is additionally beneath assured about the abilities and adeptness all-important to action effectively).

According to Lombard (2003:6), back institutions such as schools are restructured, some of the associates of the agents may anguish about adjusting or accident their cachet or jobs. The contempo changes such as redeployment and the accession of OBE in South African schools accept led to the about-face of roles and the disruption of adherence in schools. Feelings of ambiguity and ache accept been afflicted amid some of the academy personnel. Lombard (2003:6) added stresses that the senses of purpose of the majority of academy managers and educators are generally threatened by the changes. For instance the action of redeployment fabricated some of the academy managers to feel beneath assured about their skills. While some showed signs of attrition to these changes, others resorted to demography packages, aboriginal retirements and alike abandonment from the teaching field. It is as a aftereffect of this that there is a connected address of educators to accession bread-and-butter sectors (Tshabalala, 2006:12).

McLean (2005:20) credibility out that, change may be perceived abnormally as a force that upsets individuals` abundance area and consistently challenges them to anticipate alfresco their boxes and behave in new agency that may be conflicting to them. For academy cadre who ascendancy a abrogating view, the changes that action in schools generally activity abhorrence in them. Changes claiming their competence, ability and authority. Th

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