Advanced Design System

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE-STUB NOTCH FILTER USING AGILENT’S ADVANCE DESIGN SYSTEM (ADSTM)

ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this case abstraction is to access an abstraction on the architecture of single-stub cleft filters appliance Agilent avant-garde architecture arrangement (ADSTM). By appropriately artful the appropriate width, breadth and admittance accident of the distinct butt cleft clarify appliance ADS one can architecture a cleft clarify which can block frequencies not required. In the micro bandage blueprint back amicableness of the butt is , the accessible ambit of the butt is adapted to abbreviate ambit and signals forth the cleft clarify are blocked. By adjusting the amplitude and appliance assorted functions like bandage calc the ambit of the clarify are affected and the clarify is advised and analysed. Agilent avant-garde arrangement is an able software for the assay of the bake links.

INTRODUCTION:

Advanced Architecture Arrangement (ADSTM): Avant-garde Architecture Arrangement is the industry baton in high-frequency area design. It supports cyberbanking systems and RF architecture engineers developing all types of RF designs, from simple to the best complex, from RF or bake modules to be chip MMICs for communications and aerospace/defense applications.

ADS is With a complete set of simulation technologies alignment from frequency, time, numeric and concrete area simulation to electromagnetic acreage simulation, ADS lets designers absolutely characterize and optimize designs. The single, chip design, GUI graphical user interface ambiance provides system, circuit, and electromagnetic simulators, forth with schematic capture, layout, and assay adequacy eliminating the starts and stops associated with alteration architecture accoutrement in mid-cycle.

ADS can be acclimated for basal prototyping, debugging, or as an aid in accomplishment test. To enhance engineering abundance and abbreviate time-to-market, ADS software offers a aerial akin of architecture automation and applications intelligence. This authentic software ambiance is calmly extensible: we can adapt ADS by abacus appearance focused on your authentic appliance needs. An AD runs on PCs and workstations, with complete book affinity amid platforms and beyond networks. [8]

Advanced Architecture Systemis a able cyberbanking architecture automation software acclimated by arch companies in the wireless advice & networking and aerospace & defence industries. For WiMAX™, LTE, multi-gigabit per additional abstracts links, radar, & accessory applications, ADS provides full, standards-based architecture and assay with Wireless Libraries and circuit-system-EM co-simulation in an chip platform.

Key Benefits of ADS

· Complete, chip set of fast, authentic and easy-to-use system, ambit & EM simulators accredit first-pass architecture success in a complete desktop flow.

· Application-specific Architecture Guides abbreviate years of ability in an easy-to-use interface.

Components acclimated in (ADSTM) system

Term (Port Impedance for S-parameters):

Parameters:

Name

Description

Units

Default

Num

Port number

Integer

1

Z

Reference impedance, use 1+j*0 for complex

Ohm

50

Noise

Enable/disable anchorage thermal noise: yes, no (for AC or harmonic antithesis assay only; not for S-parameter analysis)

None

yes

V(DC)

Open ambit DC voltage

None

None

Temp

Temperature

oC

None

Table1: Ambit of Term

Note:

‘Term’ can be acclimated in all simulations. For S-parameter simulations it is acclimated to ascertain the impedance and area of the ports. Back not in use, it is advised as an impedance with the amount R + JX. The reactance is abandoned for dc simulations.

MLOC (Micro bandage Open-Circuited Stub):

MLOC symbol

MLOC Illustration

Parameters:

Name

Description

Units

Default

Subst

Substrate instance name

None

MSub1

W

Line width

mil

25.0

L

Line length

mil

100.0

Wall1

Distance from abreast bend of bandage H to aboriginal sidewall; Wall1 > 1/2 × Maximum( W, H)

mil

1.0e+30

Wall2

Distance from abreast bend of bandage H to additional sidewall; Wall2 > 1/2 × Maximum( W, H)

mil

1.0e+30

Temp

Physical temperature (see Notes)

°C

None

Mod

Choice of burning model

None

Kirschning

Table 2: Ambit of MLOC

Range of Usage:

1≤Er ≤128 ; 0.01 ≤ ≤ 100

Where, Er = dielectric affiliated (from associated Subst)

H = substrate array (from associated Subst)

Recommended Ambit for altered burning models

Kirschning and Jansen: 1≤Er ≤20; 0.1×H≤W ≤100×H

Kobayashi: 1 ≤Er ≤128; 0.1×H ≤ W ≤10×H; 0 ≤H≤0.13×λ

Yamashita: 2 ≤Er ≤16; 0.05×H ≤W ≤16×H

Where, λ= wavelength; freq ≤ 100 GHz

Notes and Equations :

1. The frequency-domain analytic archetypal uses the Kirschning and Jansen blueprint to account the changeless impedance, Zo, and able dielectric constant, Eeff. The abrasion factor, α, is affected appliance the incremental inductance aphorism by Wheeler. The abundance assurance of the bark aftereffect is included in the aqueduct accident calculation. Dielectric accident is additionally included in the accident calculation.

2. Burning furnishings are included appliance either the bigger adaptation of the Kirschning and Jansen model, the Kobayashi model, or the Yamashita model, depending on the best authentic in Mod. The affairs defaults to appliance the Kirschning and Jansen formula.

3. For time-domain analysis, an actuation acknowledgment acquired from the abundance analytic archetypal is used.

4. The “Temp” affiliated is alone acclimated in babble calculations.

5. For babble to be generated, the manual bandage charge be lossy (loss generates thermal noise).

6. To about-face off babble contribution, set Temp to −273.15°C.

7. Back the Hu affiliated of the substrate is beneath than 100×H, the asylum aftereffect will not be appropriately affected if Wall1 and Wall2 are larboard blank.

8. Wall1 and Wall2 charge amuse the afterward constraints:

Min(Wall1) > 1/2×Maximum(W, H)

Min(Wall2) > 1/2×Maximum(W, H)

MLIN (Micro bandage Line):

MLIN symbol

MLIN Illustration

Parameters:

Name

Description

Units

Default

Subst

Substrate instance name

None

MSub1

W

Line width

mil

25.0

L

Line length

mil

100.0

Wall1

Distance from abreast bend of bandage H to aboriginal sidewall; Wall1 > 1/2 × Maximum( W, H)

mil

1.0e+30

Wall2

Distance from abreast bend of bandage H to additional sidewall; Wall2 > 1/2 × Maximum( W, H)

mil

1.0e+30

Temp

Physical temperature (see Notes)

°C

None

Mod

Choice of burning model

None

Kirschning

Table 3: Ambit of MLIN

Range of Usage: 1 ≤ ER ≤ 128; 0.01 ≤ ≤ 100

Where, ER = dielectric affiliated (from associated Subst)

H = substrate array (from associated Subst)

Recommended Ambit for altered burning models

Kirschning and Jansen: 1 ≤ Er ≤ 20; 0.1 × H ≤ W ≤ 100 × H

Kobayashi: 1 ≤ Er ≤ 128; 0.1 × H ≤ W ≤ 10 × H; 0 ≤ H ≤ 0.13 × λ

Yamashita: 2 ≤ Er ≤ 16; 0.05 × H ≤ W ≤ 16 × H

Where λ= wavelength; freq ≤ 100 GHz

Notes and Equations:

1. The frequency-domain analytic archetypal uses the Hammerstad and Jensen blueprint to account the changeless impedance, Zo, and able dielectric constant, Εeff. The abrasion factor, α, is affected appliance the incremental inductance aphorism by Wheeler. The abundance assurance of the bark aftereffect is included in the aqueduct accident calculation. Dielectric accident is additionally included in the accident calculation.

2. Burning furnishings are included appliance either the bigger adaptation of the Kirschning and Jansen model, the Kobayashi model, or the Yamashita model, depending on the best authentic in Mod. The affairs defaults to appliance the Kirschning and Jansen formula.

3. For time-domain analysis, an actuation acknowledgment acquired from the abundance analytic archetypal is used.

4. The “Temp” affiliated is alone acclimated in babble calculations.

5. For babble to be generated, the manual bandage charge be lossy (loss generates thermal noise).

6. To about-face off babble contribution, set Temp to −273.15°C.

7. Back the Hu affiliated of the substrate is beneath than 100 × H, the asylum aftereffect will not be appropriately affected if Wall1 and Wall2 are larboard blank.

8. Wall1 and Wall2 charge amuse the afterward constraints:

Min(Wall1) > 1/2 × Maximum(W, H)

Min(Wall2) > 1/2 × Maximum(W, H)

MTEE (Microstrip T-Junction):

MTEE symbol

MTEE Illustration

Parameters:

Name

Description

Units

Subst

Microstrip substrate name

None

W1

Conductor amplitude at pin 1

Mil

W2

Conductor amplitude at pin 2

Mil

W3

Conductor amplitude at pin 3

Mil

Temp

Physical temperature

°C

Table 4: Ambit of MTEE

Range of Usage:

0.05 × H ≤ W1 ≤ 10 × H; 0.05 × H ≤ W2 ≤ 10 × H; 0.05 × H ≤ W3 ≤ 10 × H

Er ≤ 20

Wlargest/Wsmallest≤ 5

where

Wlargest, Wsmallest are the largest, aboriginal amplitude amid W2, W2, W3

f(GHz) × H (mm) ≤ 0.4 × Z0

Z0 is the appropriate impedance of the bandage with Wlargest

Notes and Equations:

1. The frequency-domain archetypal is an empirically based, analytic model. The archetypal modifies E. Hammerstad archetypal blueprint to account the Tee alliance aperture at the area authentic in the advertence for advanced ambit validity. A advertence plan about-face is added to anniversary of the ports to accomplish the advertence planes connected with the layout.

2. The centermost curve of the strips affiliated to pins 1 and 2 are affected to be aligned.

3. For time-domain analysis, an actuation acknowledgment acquired from the frequency-domain analytic archetypal is used.

4. The “Temp” affiliated is alone acclimated in babble calculations.

5. For babble to be generated, the manual bandage charge be lossy (loss generates thermal noise).

Single-stub cleft filter:

In Radio Advice Systems, causeless accord are generated. A micro bandage cleft filters causeless accord in a attenuated bandage accessory like a adaptable phone.

A Cleft clarify is a accessory that passes all frequencies except those in a stop bandage centred on a centre frequency. The affection agency plays a aloft role in eliminating the frequencies undesired. Affection agency (Q) of a bandage canyon or cleft clarify is authentic as the centre abundance of a clarify disconnected by the bandwidth.

Where, bandwidth is the aberration amid abundance of the aerial 3dB cycle off point and abundance of the lower 3dB cycle off point.

TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY:

place to addition for administering the manual of energy, such as electromagnetic after-effects or acoustic waves, as able-bodied as electric ability transmission. Apparatus of manual curve accommodate wires, coaxial cables, dielectric slabs, optical fibres, electric ability lines, and waveguides.

Consider the micro bandage blueprint of a cleft filter,

In the designing of the micro-strip circuits (i.e. filters), the basal ambit are impedance Z0 and adviser amicableness λg which are advised as TEM manual line.

The impedance in the accessible ambit butt Zin is as accustomed below,

Zin = ZS}

Where ZL=∞, so we avoid ZS

Zin = ZS} = ZS { } = ZS { } = – j ZS cot β l

However,

l = , β l = =

Therefore, cot β l=0

So, Zin = -j ZS cot β l=0

hence ┌L = = ∞/∞ = 1

so VSWR = = 2/0 =

This indicates that the arresting whose amicableness is will acquire actual low impedance and appropriately it is a abbreviate circuit

Thus Admittance accident acknowledgment at abundance f0 is aerial except for alternative frequencies, this is because cot β l is no best zero.

Insertion accident and acknowledgment accident are two important abstracts to appraise the affection of abounding acquiescent cilia optic components, such as cilia optic application bond and cilia optic adapter and abounding more.

Insertion loss:

Definition –

The Admittance Accident of a bandage is the arrangement of the ability accustomed at the end of the bandage to the ability transmitted into the line.

Insertion accident refers to the fibre optic ablaze accident acquired back a fibre optic basic admit into addition one to anatomy the fibre optic link. Admittance accident can aftereffect from absorption, misalignment or air gap amid the fibre optic components. We appetite the admittance accident to be as beneath as possible. Our fibre optic apparatus admittance accident is beneath than 0.2dB typical, beneath than 0.1dB types accessible on request.

An announcement for admittance accident is

IL= 10log10 [1 +(YS/2)2]

Return loss:

Return Accident is a admeasurement of the reflected activity from a transmitted signal. It is frequently bidding in absolute dB’s. The beyond the value, the beneath activity that is reflected.

Return accident can be affected appliance the afterward equation:

IMPRLT10.gif (1294 bytes)

Return accident is a admeasurement of VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio), bidding in decibels (db). The return-loss is acquired due to impedance conflict amid two or added circuits. For a simple cable assembly, there will be a conflict area the adapter is affiliated to the cable. There may be an impedance conflict acquired by aeroembolism or cuts in a cable. At bake frequencies, the actual backdrop as able-bodied as the ambit of the cable or adapter plays important role in free the impedance bout or mismatch. A aerial amount of return-loss denotes bigger affection of the arrangement beneath assay (or accessory beneath test). For example, a cable with a acknowledgment accident of 21 db is bigger than addition agnate cable with a acknowledgment accident of 14 db, and so on.

Phase Acknowledgment of the cleft filter:

The appearance acknowledgment of a cleft clarify shows the greatest amount of change at the centre frequency. The amount of change becomes added accelerated as the Q of the clarify increases. The accumulation adjournment of a cleft clarify is greatest at the centre frequency, and becomes best as the Q of the clarify increases.

EXPERIMENT SUB PARTS

CASE-STUDY PART 1:

Aim:

Designing and simulation of a cleft clarify at 3 GHz appliance Agilent’s ADSTM for the accustomed architecture specifications.

Requirement:

Electrical performance:

Centre frequency: 3.0 GHz

Insertion loss: >25.0 dB

Input/output Impedance: 50 Ω

Substrate specifications:

Material type: 3M Cu-clad

Dielectric affiliated (εr): 2.17

Thickness (h): 0.794mm

Conductor array (t): 35um

Conductivity (σ): 5.84e+7 S/m

tanδ: 0.0009

MLIN, MLOC and MTEE are micro bandage elements authentic in ADSTM which is acclimated to assemble the circuit

Explanation:

We charge to simulate and architecture a cleft clarify at 3 GHz here, appliance Agilent’s ADS. Back the aloft blueprint are acclimated in ADS, the amplitude of the microstrip curve is acquired as 2.42mm agnate to 50 ohms manual bandage appliance Bandage calc function.

The Bandage Calc action is additionally acclimated to actuate the able dielectric affiliated (Keff) of 3M Cu-clad Substrate at 3.0GHZ from which the initial, breadth of the accessible ambit butt can be calculated.

εr = 2.1 Keff = 1.854 at 3.0GHZ (from bandage calc) , λ0 = 100 m (at 3.0 GHZ)

λg = λ0 /(Keff)1/2 = 100/(1.854)1/2 =73.44mm; λg/4 =18.36 mm

The antecedent architecture breadth of the accessible ambit butt is 18.354 mm.

Thus we access the afterward substrate blueprint at Centre frequency: 3.0 GHz, Admittance loss: greater than 25.0 dB and Input/output Impedance:

Material type: 3M Cu-Clad, Dielectric affiliated (εr): 2.17, Array (h): 0.794m,

Conductor array (t): 35um, Conductivity (σ): 5.84e+7 S/m, tanᶿ=0.0009, l = 18.36mm W(Width of the micro bandage lines)=2.42mm

From these blueprint we access the artifice of Admittance Accident Response(S21) advertence about 49.234 dB abrasion abreast 3 GHz which is apparent in 8

To beam the aftereffect of capricious the breadth of the accessible ambit butt , the aforementioned action of simulation is again alert or thrice with altered ethics of breadth of accessible ambit butt accustomed as follows L1=20, L2=18.34, L3=16.As we can see in the 9 that as the breadth of accessible butt increases the abundance decreases. As the breadth of accessible butt charge be λg/4 and so the 50Ω micro bandage bandage is blocked and appropriately the arresting is anesthetized and if there is change in the breadth again the micro bandage is not blocked appropriately the arresting is blocked.

Analysis of the case abstraction 1:

From the case study1, it proves that at amicableness λg/4 the accessible ambit at point S of the butt is adapted to abbreviate ambit and the signals casual forth AB micro bandage is blocked. Appropriately we architecture a clarify at 3 GHz frequency.

When the amicableness is λg/4 the arresting will see actual low impedance to arena at point S and appropriately is abbreviate circuited. This arresting will be captivated from the signals activated at ascribe A, which will apparent aerial abrasion in its admittance accident at 3GHz.All alternative signals abide unaffected, appropriately low admittance accident acquire abreast 3GHz.

CASE-STUDY PART 2:

Aim:

Using the ADSTM Affability facility, investigate the aftereffect of capricious the amplitude of the butt filter. Actuate the amplitude of bandage which provides minimum out of bandage accident whilst advancement the aboriginal clarify blueprint (i.e.>25 db at 3.0 GHz)

Requirement:

Electrical performance:

Centre frequency: 3.0 GHz

Insertion loss: >25.0 dB

Input/output Impedance: 50 Ω

Substrate specifications:

Material type: 3M Cu-clad

Dielectric affiliated (εr): 2.17

Thickness (h): 0.794mm

Conductor array (t): 35um

Conductivity (σ): 5.84e+7 S/m

tanδ: 0.0009

CS2 10: Ambit Diagram of Butt Cleft clarify acquired by ADS Simulation

Explanation:

When the amplitude of the butt is 5mm and breadth is 18.8mm the acknowledgment acquired is as apparent below

Now we alter the amplitude of the butt to investigate the effect. . In this action the amplitude of the butt clarify is afflicted at altered ethics from w1=5mm, w2=2.5mm, w3=2mm, w4=1mm, w5=0.2mm as apparent in 12. Actuality we additionally agenda that back capricious the amplitude of line, both the amplitude of the butt bandage and agnate amplitude on the MTEE area charge is varied.

After capricious the amplitude appliance affability angle action of the ADS ability we access a acknowledgment at 3GHz and amplitude is acclaimed as 0.2mm.The 13 shows the following.

Analysis of case abstraction 2:

The amplitude of the bandage determines its impedance. If the impedance is aerial thinner the bandage and viceversa.When the amplitude of the i/o manual bandage is agnate to the amplitude of the butt again Admittance accident is at 0Db and back amplitude of the i/o manual bandage is greater than the amplitude of the butt again Admittance accident tends to 0Db.

In the aloft case appropriately we alter the amplitude of the butt and manual bandage and back centre abundance is 3 GHz and the amplitude is 0.2mm the admittance accident is actual low. Lower the admittance accident added is the arresting transmitted.

CASE- STUDY PART 3:

Aim

To architecture a cleft clarify at centre abundance of 4.5GHZ and it should abolish the affected arresting and exceptionable accord by at atomic 24db with minimum out of bandage accident with the blueprint accustomed below

Requirement:

Electrical specifications:

Centre frequency: 4.5 GHz

Insertion loss: >25.0 dB

Input/output Impedance: 50 Ω

Substrate specifications:

Material type: 3M Cu-clad

Dielectric affiliated (εr): 2.17

Thickness (h): 0.794mm

Conductor array (t): 35um

Conductivity (σ): 5.84e+7 S/m

tanδ: 0.0009

Explanation: In the responses apparent beneath we acquire acquired the 24 dB aberration by adjusting the abundance at 4.5 GHz. In CS3 14 the breadth and amplitude are adapted to access the authentic response

Analysis of case abstraction 3:

In case abstraction 3 we accept the way of designing a cleft clarify to abolish the affected signals generated by wireless advice systems.

CONCLUSION:

This case abstraction helps us analyse the cleft filter. The cleft clarify is advised and its basics and alive are understood. The apparatus ADS proves actual able in this learning. To conclude, this agreement gives us a broader ability about manual theory. The abstraction is acutely understood. In wireless communications the exceptionable accord and affected signals generated are annulled by this cleft clarify enabling a bigger reception. Appropriately designing of such a cleft clarify is learnt.

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