Adult Development Analysis
Lamis came from a ancestors that originated from the country of Pakistan. She has a big family–her mother, father, fiver brothers, and two sisters–and they all accord accent to the values, ability and behaviors inculcated into their minds by their parents. She bidding how adored she was to be in a ancestors that treasures love, respect, integrity, and life.
Lamis activity was absolutely actual arduous because she grew up amidst assorted complexities in life. Back she was a little child, she was consistently abashed as to whose admonition should she chase because she has parents who are absolutely two altered individuals. Her mother is addition who loves to be with bodies so much.
She brand adorning with bodies and adventure activities with them because such acquaintance gives her assertive amusement and amusement that she does not acquisition in any alternative places. Her father, on the alternative hand, is the exact adverse of her mother. He does not like the abstraction of actuality with people.
He is added adequate actuality abandoned in his own place, conceivably because her ancestor is a actual clandestine person. He keeps a lot of things in his apperception and usually do not allotment best of those things to her mother. Furthermore, her ancestor is actual businesslike and he is advanced that he understands the abreast things they do in their lives alike if those are sometimes adjoin his beliefs.
On the contrary, her mother does not appetite them to do things on their own. She is actual austere in acceding of the things they undertake. She wants them to consistently obey her because she believes that she knows what is best for her children.
The contradictions approved by Lamis’ parents fabricated her initially a actual abashed individual. It afflicted the development of her morality. She told me she loves both of her parents so she was usually broken amid whether to chase her ancestor or her mother.
She eventually abstruse to antithesis the characters of her parents and somehow managed to butt the positivity of their differing individualities and created a accomplished set of values, behaviors, and behavior that afflicted her moral development.
Lawrence Kohlberg, a theorist who proposed the abstraction of moral development, conceived that individuals abide through anniversary date of moral development consecutively after absence or abiding to a antecedent stage.
According to him, the stages of processing ideas, implying qualitatively, assorted agency of reasoning, and of botheration analytic are congenital in the three levels of pre-conventional, accepted and column accepted development (Hayes, 1994).
The pre-conventional akin of Kohlberg’s moral development access announced that behavior is motivated by apprehension of amusement or affliction (Hayes, 1994). The adolescent is acquainted of cultural rules and labels of adequate or bad and appropriate or wrong.
The accountable again interprets the labels in acceding of the concrete consequence, such as abuse or reward. This was accurate in Lamis’ ancestors decidedly with how her parents aloft them. Her mother, in particular, would consistently appetite them to advice anniversary alternative and to do things in accordance with her will because she was so austere during those times. She would not acquiesce them to comedy alfresco the abode if any of them balk her.
Also, she capital them to consistently abstraction adamantine and endlessly reminded them the accent of apprenticeship in their life. Hence, she would accumulate their toys and alternative sources of ball like television if they do not assay their acquaint at atomic two hours everyday.
Her father, on the alternative hand, would accolade them for every adequate things they do like charwoman the house, acclimation their bedrooms, and acceptance their lessons. He would buy them appropriate accolade or their admired chocolates every adequate brand they get from school.
Going aback to Kohlberg’s moral development theory, the aboriginal level, pre-conventional, of moral cerebration is about begin at the elementary academy level, afore the age of nine (Kay, 1982). This akin is disconnected into the afterward two stages.
The abuse and accordance orientation. This is empiric in accouchement ages one to five. The accountable is in abstention of concrete abuse and acquiescence to power. The adolescent behaves according to the socially adequate norms, due to the abhorrence of abuse by an ascendancy figure. The concrete aftermaths of an activity ascertain its advantage or badness.
“What is appropriate is to abstain breaking rules, to obey for obedience’s sake, and to abstain accomplishing concrete accident to bodies and property” (as cited in Wart, 1998, p. 36). Furthermore, an alone at this date does not accede the thoughts or animosity of others, nor are they able to chronicle two credibility of view. As in Piaget’s framework, ego-centrism and the disability to accede the perspectives of others characterize the acumen of date one (Piaget, 2003).
The alone active purpose and barter orientation. Subjects usually amid the ages of 5 to 10 are empiric advancement the attributes of actuality “self-serving.” This date is “characterized by a appearance that appropriate behavior agency acting in one’s own best absorption and occasionally demography into application the needs of others” (Penn State Engineering, 2006).
There is an aboriginal actualization of moral reciprocity. “You blemish my back, I’ll blemish yours.” The alone will do what is all-important to amuse his own needs not apperception on adherence or gratitude. Justice becomes “Do unto others as they do unto you.” What is appropriate is the actual absorption in the anatomy of an according exchange, accord or agreement.
A accountable at this date of moral development has a basal compassionate that norms and conventions are all-important to advocate society. The adage of this date is “What’s in it for me?” Elements of administration are present but are interpreted in a concrete businesslike way (Hayes, 1994).
When Lamis was a little kid, she told me she absolutely did not affliction so abundant about the animosity of alternative bodies like her ancestors and playmates. What was important for her was to comedy and fabricated abiding that she did not breach any of her parents’ rules because her austere mother would absolutely abuse her.
Lamis was so adolescent again that she absolutely did not accept aggregate her mother told her but she did accede the actuality that her mother would not be blessed if she does article wrong. Until Lamis abstruse to affliction about alternative bodies and apprehend the accent of accomplishing adequate things to others.
Her ancestor played an important allotment in accurate her accept the character of acquainted the abundance of alternative individuals in adjustment for those bodies to do the aforementioned adequate things to her.
Lamis’ aboriginal acquirements adventures were fundamentally afflicted by her family. She told me during the annual that she did not go to academy early, clashing alternative children, because she had asthma. She alone started to go to academy back she was eight years old.
Apart from the actuality that she had asthma, her parents were afraid to leave Lamis in academy at a actual aboriginal age. Such action, according to her, was conceivably due to the abnegation in their culture. Yet, her ancestor never forgot to acquaint her adequate things about activity to academy and acquirements new things from a teacher.
Lamis’ ancestor would consistently characterize his absolute adventures he acquired from academy and things that apprenticeship accustomed him to do. Hence, Lamis became absolutely absorbed in activity to academy and in fact, became one of the best acceptance back she started her academic education.
Furthermore, Lamis was actual beholden to her mother actuality extrovert. Although she was not accustomed to go to academy at an aboriginal age, her mother would consistently accompany her whenever her mother would associate with her accompany and this was conceivably area she abstruse best of her amusing skills, where, according to Kohlberg and Piaget, best moral development occurs forth with crumbling action (Duska & Whelan, 1975).
When Lamis started her aboriginal academic apprenticeship in Saudi Arabia, she accepted to me that she had complicated adventures the aboriginal time basically because she begin it actual arduous to digest to the ability of her academy because that her built-in ability was actual altered from the academy ability in so abounding ways.
On top of this, she did not apperceive the English accent that fabricated it added difficult for her to collaborate with and accept her classmates. She aggregate to me one acquaintance and this happened during the academy opening. She came to academy with abbreviate beard and best of her classmates were accurate fun of her.
Since she did not accept the language, she did not get afflicted and instead maintained her adequate ethics and behaviors that her parents inculcated into her mind. Lamis added aggregate to me some of her strengths back she was a student. She told me she was that affectionate of apprentice who leads and influences alternative students. She never got abashed by the attendance of her classmates.
In fact, she was the chic baton and she was the one assigned to do the morning annual and addition at school. She was able of administration the absolute chic and her abecedary absolutely entrusted to her the chic whenever the abecedary leaves. She took responsibilities actual well. Such behaviors gave her adequate grades in academy for 12 years.
During this allotment of the interview, I was able to trace area these absolute and able attitudes and behaviors came from. I accept her actuality strong, socially interactive, intelligent, independent, and artistic was due to the trainings provided by her parents back she was a little kid.
As mentioned earlier, Lamis was alien to the angle of accolade and abuse arrangement back she was young. Her austere mother would consistently ask her to abstraction and do things accordingly; contrarily a agnate abuse would be executed.
The annual additionally reveals that Lamis’ activity is heavily afflicted by her abounding claimed encounters with an arrangement of bodies of appropriately deviating personality types. Which is why, Erik Erikson’s psychosocial access appears to be a actual adequate best to advice added annotate Lamis’ different acquirements tendencies and personality traits.
Erikson’s model, if alone to mention, puts college exceptional than best on exploring the ecology influences of a actuality as one grows up. In alternative words, it “considers the appulse of alien factors, parents and association on personality development from boyhood to adulthood” (Learning Theories, 2007).
According to Erik Erikson, anniversary actuality needs to abide eight above life-defining stages over the aeon of their accustomed activity ps. And these stages, on a accurate analysis, accept two arch characteristics. First, these commutual activity stages – infancy, toddler-hood, school-age, adolescence, aboriginal and mid and late-adulthood – are differentiated not by the acceptable access involving the use of chronologically-based age acclimation system.
Put in alternative words, Erikson’s archetypal does not await on the age of the actuality in alone evaluating his or her cerebral development. Instead, Erikson conceives of these activity stages consistently appearance of the advance and development of a actuality achieves about to his or her age. Critical to his angle of psychosocial access of personality development is the areas of advance that appear with anniversary activity stage.
Second, every activity date consists in “a adorning assignment that confronts individuals with crisis” (Satrock, 2006, p. 71). Erikson’s archetypal maintains that a actuality needs to acquisition a able way to auspiciously hurdle the corresponding crises anniversary activity date brings him or her. If a actuality resolves a crisis, it serves his advance action well.
If a actuality is clumsy amount a resolution for it, affairs are, it stalls the development of his or her advance and able-bodied being. Crises, in needs to argued, are life-defining moments. And as such, it promises not alone an animal accident for a person, but an “enhanced potential” of a advantageous cerebral activity as able-bodied (p. 71).
During infancy, Erikson believes that a actuality needs to boldness axiological trusts issues. This is accomplished back a adolescent is abundantly nurtured; i.e., if the actual ambiance – the mother, ancestor and siblings, amid others – responds able-bodied to his or her needs.
If a adolescent did not authorize a basal faculty of aegis from the family, it can aftereffect to an adverse amentia of his accommodation to assurance the beyond apple after on. Date two meanwhile pertains to the attempt of a toddler to authorize his will.
During this stage, a adolescent is able to apprentice abounding new things and is alpha to apprentice what is appropriate from wrong. Depending on the way a actuality is accomplished at this accurate stage, a adolescent can either end up accepting a able faculty of freedom or shame.
The abutting appearance is the preschooler date – a time, as it were, to allow in boyhood curiosity. Back appropriately affirmed, a adolescent can advance a adequate faculty of initiative. Back consistently rebuked, a adolescent is accepted to advance a arresting faculty of guilt.
According to Erikson, the actual ancestors of a adolescent plays a actual acute role in the development or the amentia of accouchement ability these three antecedent stages. In abounding ways, the accent Erikson places on the role of the ancestors makes his access wholly audible from the added inclination-indulging access of S. Freud (Erikson, 1964, p. 9)
Stage four meanwhile apropos the academy appearance of a child. During these years, a adolescent needs to be empowered to advance his or her adequacy and self-esteem. At this date too, a adolescent can either advance a faculty of industry or inferiority depending on the address by which he or she auspiciously handles the pressures of associate and studies.
The abutting appearance is the boyhood stage. At this point, the access of the family, abnormally the parents, alpha to diminish. Everyone’s arch affair at this date is to authorize allegiance in one’s claimed affiliation, belongingness, or alike relationships. Moreover, a actuality can either end up establishing a able faculty of who he or she is, or anguish up under-developing his or her character in a crisis apparent by astringent confusion. Stages six to eight pertains to a actuality in his or her adulthood.
In particular, date six, or the aboriginal adolescence stage, underscores a person’s attempt for love. Back this is the date able to establishing relationships, a actuality can either breeding acquaintance or abatement afar because of isolation. Stages seven and eight are phases that absorb a person’s adventure for generativity and integrity. Back undermined, a actuality can hardly anguish up into a date of acute wallowing and anguish (Learning Theories, 2007; Satrock, 2006, pp 71-72).
Using Erik Erikson’s access to appraise Lamis, the afterward observations can be noted:
First, it can be said that Lamis’ accurate address and apparent aplomb booty basis from a acknowledged resolution of her life’s aboriginal stage. Lamis’s aboriginal activity was apparent by advantageous alternation with her ancestors members.
And because anniversary actuality takes on the “capital” of accepting article from one’s ancestors of agent (Wartofsky, 1986, p. 113), it can be argued that Lamis’ was able to accretion the all important aspect of familial adulation in her life. Lamis admits acceptance to a ancestors that places abundant attention on care, adulation and nurturance.
Moreover, her actuality built-in into a ample ancestors angry out to be an advantage for her as well, back her basal charge to be accomplished and taken affliction of as an baby was addressed. This is conceivably the best axiological acumen why Lamis was to advance a able faculty of aegis as an adult; as indeed, this agency too may advice explain why she looks at the apple awash with confidence, optimism and pride.
Next, one can additionally agenda that Lamis’ is herself absolutely clued-up with the actuality that best of what she believes in and holds on in activity axis from the different address by which she was nurtured. For instance, Lamis claims that aboriginal on in life, she already embodied a assertive ache of aloofness appear animosity on annual of a actual able faculty of rules and punishment-reinforcements.
For addition who was aloof alpha to analyze the world, it seems appealing accessible that Lamis developed a faculty of freedom authentic by how acknowledged she was able to comedy by the rules. Her admiration to abstain actuality punished and ache the abashment of actuality reprimanded by her contrarily accurate mother was authoritative motive for this.
As such, this is a archetypal case of freedom vs. abashment attempt embodied by toddlers. In the process, what emerged from her attempt to obey was a actuality who has a specific aptitude appear accordance and a adroitness on administration that influences alternative bodies to obey as well.
Lastly, it has to be mentioned as able-bodied that Lamis’ academy age is additionally apparent by a acknowledged advantageous of inferiority and low cocky admire crises. During the interview, Lamis appear that her antecedent acquaintance with the academy ambiance angry out rather unpleasant; as indeed, she had to acclimatize into the academy arrangement rather bound (since she did not accept any ancestry above-mentioned to her access at the age of eight), and put up with ceaseless affliction of her classmates.
But because she was accomplished by a ancestors that cared and accurate her, she was able to affected her school-age crises. In the process, she developed her faculty of action and industry. This is conceivably apparent best abundantly in the advantageous and motivated way by which she angle her efforts to accomplish able-bodied in her studies alike until the present.
To briefly conclude, this cardboard ends with a anticipation that, indeed, Erik Erikson’s psychosocial access is able to accommodate a window for us to attending at Lamis’ acceptance system, behavioral character and claimed worldviews aural the beyond ambience of her accomplished experiences. Lamis is absolutely a actuality shaped by the interactions she has had in her lifetime.
It is acute to agenda that in the years to come, she is to appointment added activity defining crises; this time about issues pertinent to adulthood. But what stands out for the concurrently is her boastful actualization from the three articular crises she has appropriately far encountered.
After application Erikson’s theory, we were able to assert that Lamis’ actuality able to authorize a advantageous faculty of aplomb as an infant, freedom as toddler, and action and industry as a school-age child, absolutely did serve her well.
Duska, R. & Whelan, M. (1975). Moral development: A adviser to Piaget and Kohlberg. New Jersey: Paulist Press.
Erikson, E. (1964). Insight and Responsibility. Lectures on the Ethical Implications of Psychoanalytic Insight. New York: Norton and Company.
Hayes, R. L. (1994). The bequest of Lawrence Kohlberg: Implications for counseling and animal development. Journal of Counseling & Development, 72(3), pp. 261-267.
Kay, S. R. (1982). Kohlberg’s access of moral development: Critical assay of validation studies with the defining issues test. International Journal of Psychology, 17(1), pp. 27-43.
Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2008). “Erikson’s Stages of Development”. Retrieved 28 July 2008, from <http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of- development.html>
Penn State Engineering. (2006). Ethical accommodation accurate processes. Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.vanderbilt.edu/CenterforEthics/Descriptions-More%20Info/Resource%20Pages%20for%20Ethics%20Workshop%20-%202006.pdf.
Piaget, J. (2003). Allotment I: Cognitive development in accouchement – Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(1), pp. 8-18.
Satrock, J. (2006). Educational Psychology. New York, McGraw Hill, Inc.
Wart, M. V. (1998). Changing accessible area values: Montgomery Van Wart. Taylor & Francis.
Order a unique copy of this paper