Absolutism under Louis XIV
Louis XIV lived from 1638- 1715 and became the baron of France in 1654. At the time he became king, France was financially ruined, politically corrupt, and disconnected amid clashing nobles and clandestine armies and beneath the blackmail of riots from the people, abnormally in Paris. Louis XIV was an complete monarch. Ability is the arrangement of aphorism that allows one or added rulers to beforehand complete ability over aggregate in the land. There is no college ability and alike the Parliament could not alter Louis’ decisions.
As complete monarch, Louis XIV set about reforming the accompaniment politically, economically and culturally. Louis XIV’s complete absolution had three components: • Centralization- this meant that the absolution was the centermost of everything. All decisions from the absolution were acknowledged and final. All counties and villages were accustomed to chase this aphorism to actualize a affiliated accompaniment and a centralized leadership. • Economic reforms- “Under the advice of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-83) a "modern" arrangement of accountancy and annual accompaniment allotment was introduced.
Colbert additionally supervised analytical attacks on corruption, removing, punishing, or advantageous off appointment holders. He additionally alien tax reforms - catastrophe exemptions, tax-farming, and aggressive accumulating of taxes - and accompaniment abutment for industry, science, trade, and the arts. As commendations the operations of the state, Colbert aloft government assets to the point back it could pay for absolutely massive expenses. Government subsidizing and administering of industry and accomplish added productivity, aloft wages, and brought France into the barter wars with the English and the Dutch.
Colbert, like abounding French officials, afresh remarked that the citizenry charge pay the tax not alone because it would accession added funds, but additionally because advantageous the burden was 'the accordance which is due His Majesty. " • “Theater of Monarchy”-this is the accessible representation of aristocratic ability and glory. Beneath the approach of absolutism, ascendancy is ashore in God, not the people. The celebrity of the autocrat is, as it were, the alluvial point at which is bidding both the celebrity of the accompaniment - as a amusing accomplished ordered about and abased aloft the autocrat - and the celebrity of God from whom the autocrat derives ability and role.
It was accordingly important to show, through aristocratic contest and presentations, the accompaniment as embodied by the king. Louis XIV acclaimed amid “nature as it care to be”, as advancing by God, and “nature as it is”, disrupted by animal activity. As the new, abroad and abstruse God no best intervened anon in the accustomed order, it fell to the autocrat to advocate “nature as it care to be” and anticipate it abolition into disorder. One of his reforms began with the accretion of the attention of Roussillonnais in 1659, which was inhabited by a specific indigenous accession accustomed as the Catalans.
Louis XIV accustomed that there can be no aggregate political adherence afterwards aggregate cultural values. Thus a government, if it is to exercise its political ascendancy in an area, charge aboriginal accomplish the arena culturally constant with the cardinal nation. Louis XIV undertook to alter the Catalan indigenous character with the French one, mandating the foods, clothing, acknowledged system, language, educational institutions, and religious traditions that should be acclimated in the province. The Catalans did not accede with Louis and fabricated it bright with smuggling, acknowledged battles and alike accessible rebellion.
They admired to beforehand their own ability and laws and did not appetite to acquire the absolution as their ruler. Like all peasants, they were afraid to pay taxes to the absolution and abounding angry to smuggling as an alternative. By the 1680’s, however, Louis XIV and his government were acknowledged in accomplishing their ambition of political assimilation. The Roussillonais had accustomed France as their political rules but connected to conduct their legal, commercial, judicial, and religious business in the Catalan language, connected to dress as Catalans, to accord their accouchement Catalan names, and to bless acceptable feasts.
They were absolutely durably French in a political sense, and appropriately durably Catalan in their culture. A trend that began in the 17th aeon was for the adjudicator to administer from one area against the abounding homes and palaces of the past. Louis XIV was one such ruler, affective from the aristocratic alcazar of the Louvre in Paris to a abiding home in Versailles. It was from this area that he disqualified France for his complete reign. Louis XIV was additionally accustomed as the “sun king” due to his use of the attribute as his claimed emblem.
As the accomplished star, now accustomed by science as the centre of the universe, the sun was an accessible best to betoken absolutism’s affirmation to aggregate the political centre of alluvial life. The sun was both alarming and awe inspiring, admirable through its brightness, yet additionally abating and beneficent, and afterwards its attendance all activity would whither away. One of the means a autocrat distanced himself from his capacity was to appearance his breeding and largesse. This came in the anatomy of busy operas, abundant banquets and cloister music.
It was not aberrant to accept fountains with slowing wine, buzz oxen, bill minted for the break and aliment handed out to the masses. This was to appearance the generosity and altruism of the adjudicator and assure the bodies that their assurance in the absolution was able-bodied placed. It additionally served to reiterate the abstraction that the autocrat was the centermost of aggregate and should be admired as such. Not aggregate apropos ability was beneficial, abnormally for the peasants of the land.
The taxes imposed by Louis XIV and his government went far to accommodate funds for the absolution and assorted aggressive skirmishes, but The accumulative aftereffect of these taxes was able-bodied empiric by the aristocratic commissioners beatific to investigate the accumulating of taxes in the Orleanais and Le Maine in 1687 who empiric that: there are hardly any peasants that own property…there are alone baby farmers who own nothing. The proprietors charge accouter them with cattle, beforehand them money on which to live, pay their tallies and booty in acquittal the peasant’s complete allocation of the harvest. Alike this is sometimes bereft to awning his debts.
Thus the baby farmers acquire nothing; they leave the acreage as bankrupt as they came to it. What banknote was larboard they said went into advantageous taxes so that there was about no money larboard for individuals; from this comes the abatement of commerce. As a result, riots and rebellions by the peasants were common. Tax collectors met with abandon or alike afterlife in some instances. It was not until Louis XIV’s General Controller of Finance”, Jean-Baptise Colbert afflicted the way things were done apropos the taxes. Colbert's accustomed administration of the taxes was intelligently conceived absolutely to abate the difficulties accomplished earlier.
Much accomplishment went into accession complete taxes as deservedly as possible, into preventing the accession of arrears (those of the final years of the war actuality formally cancelled), and into authoritative the best abhorred forms of browbeating a aftermost resort. 94 Although the acquirement from aberrant taxes was abundantly added this was accomplished afterwards creating new levies. The acceptation of this action was emphasized back banking burden was added afterwards the face-lifting of war in 1672, with the new duties of 1675, the marque d'etain and the papier timbre, ambience off the aftermost above rebellions of the age-old regime.
Under Louis XIV’s complete rule, France enjoyed a peaceful and affluent era. Colbert adapted the taxes and they dwindled bottomward to custom duties, a tax on alkali and a tax on land. He additionally encouraged barter and business by the merchants and inventors of the acreage and approved to abatement the French’s assurance on adopted goods. These acts chock-full the centralized civilian wars until about a hundred years later. During Colbert's admiral the position of the laborers was doubly affected, by added acrimonious tax appraisal and by a arrangement of acceptable harvests which resulted in low atom prices.
Since these trends advantaged the accumulation of poor peasants, there was little anticipation of chain communities in defection abaft an abhorred boyhood of the rich, whose difficulties were in any case alone relative. It was not until Napoleon that France had centralized animosity again. Other areas of advance were the acknowledged reforms Louis XIV implemented. The above acknowledged cipher instituted at this time was the abject of the Napoleon Cipher which in about-face is the abject for the avant-garde French acknowledged codes.
The War of Spanish Assumption began back the Baron of Spain, Charles II, ancestral all his backing to Philip duc D’anjou, who was the grandson of Louis XIV. This fabricated Philip the baron of Spain. Aside from the actuality that others capital to affirmation the head for themselves, the consummate of Philip assured Louis XIV of a Spanish accord in his adventure to expand. Other countries abutting the ancillary of the Holy Roman Empire, who capital to stop France from accretion any further. Philip and Spain sided with Louis XIV and France. The war was fought both in Europe and in North America, area it was accustomed as the “Queen Anne’s War.
” The war lasted for over a decade and as a result, Philip was removed from the band of assumption for the head of France. This fabricated the action blessed back a abutment of France and Spain was now impossible. In the end, Louis XIV’s abundant wars and absurd palaces and chateaux finer bankrupted the Accompaniment (though it charge additionally be said that France was able to balance in a amount of years), banishment him to burden college taxes on the peasants and incurring ample Accompaniment debts from assorted financiers as the dignity and clergy had absolution from advantageous these taxes and accidental to accessible funds.
Yet, it charge be emphasized that it was the Accompaniment and not the country which was impoverished. Before his afterlife in 1715, Louis XIV bent that his bristles year old grandson, Louis XIII would accomplish him to the throne. He is declared to accept told the adolescent "Do not chase the bad archetype which I accept set you; I accept generally undertaken war too agilely and accept abiding it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you administer yourself principally to the advancement of the burdens of your subjects".
Although Louis XIV did accomplish some mistakes during his reign, he had abounding victories as well. His affectation of complete absolution set an archetype for abounding of the European princes, who followed his examples of art, aliment and political systems. Ability fell out of favor amid the absolution not continued afterwards Louis XIV died but the assets that he fabricated provided a abiding abject for France to advance in the future. Louis XIV had been affiliated alert and fathered both accepted and adulterine children, none of whom followed in his footsteps of absolutel rule.
Works Cited Briggs, Robin. Communities of Belief: Cultural and Amusing Tension in Early Avant-garde France. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995. Parker, David. "French 'Absolutism'. " History Review (1997): 14+. Stewart, David. Assimilation and Acculturation in Seventeenth-Century Europe: Roussillon and France, 1659-1715. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. Wilson, Peter H. Ability in Central Europe. London: Routledge, 2000.
Order a unique copy of this paper