A Study into Bruners Constructivist Theory

Bruners Constructivist Access asserts that acquirements is an alive action in which learners assemble new annual or concepts based aloft their accepted or accomplished knowledge. Apprenticeship can be fabricated added able by accouterment a accurate sequencing of abstracts to acquiesce learners to body aloft what they already apperceive and go above the advice they accept been accustomed to ascertain the key attempt by themselves. Bruner’s constructivist access is based aloft the abstraction of cognition. Cerebral structures are acclimated to accommodate acceptation and alignment to adventures and acquiesce the alone to go above the advice given. According to Bruner, the adviser should try and animate acceptance to assemble hypotheses, makes decisions, and ascertain attempt by themselves. The instructor’s assignment is to construe advice to be abstruse into a architecture adapted to the learner’s accepted accompaniment of compassionate and adapt it in a circling address so that the apprentice always builds aloft what they accept already learned.

For Constructivism theory, following of apprentice questions and interests is valued. The abecedary helps to actualize situations area the acceptance feel safe analytic and absorption on their own processes, either abreast or in accumulation discussions. The apprentice is the actuality who creates new compassionate for him or herself. The abecedary coaches, moderates, suggests, but allows the acceptance allowance to experiment, ask questions and try things that don’t work. Acquirements activities crave the students’ abounding accord (like hands-on experiments). An important allotment of the acquirements action is that acceptance reflect on, and allocution about, their activities. Acceptance additionally advice set their own goals and agency of assessment. Acceptance accept annual that they may afterwards see were invalid, incorrect, or bereft to explain new experiences. These annual are acting accomplish in the affiliation of knowledge. Constructivist teaching takes into annual students’ accepted conceptions and builds from there.

Piaget’s Theory is based on the abstraction that the developing adolescent builds cerebral structures or in alternative words, brainy “maps,” schemes, or networked concepts for compassionate and responding to concrete adventures aural his or her environment. Piaget added accurate that a child’s cerebral anatomy increases in composure with development, affective from a few congenital reflexes such as arrant and sucking to awful circuitous brainy activities. Piaget believed that accouchement should play, agreement and acumen in adjustment to learn. He believed that bodies couldn’t be accustomed advice that they anon understand. Assimilation is the action of demography in, of arresting some accident or acquaintance to some scheme”. Accommodation is aback one changes the arrangement as a aftereffect of new advice and calm is aback one strives for and alcove a antithesis of the advice collected.

Gagne’s access should be classified as advisory access as against to a acquirements theory. A acquirements access annual for how changes in animal achievement abilities appear about. On the alternative hand, an advisory access seeks to call the altitude beneath which one can carefully align for the acquirements of specific achievement outcomes. Gagne’s Taxonomy of Acquirements states that there are bristles above categories of acquirements outcomes:

verbal information,

intellectual skills,

cognitive strategies,

motor skills, and

attitudes;

The bristles subcategories of bookish abilities are hierarchical in attributes (low-level abilities to high-level skills). Gagne’s bureaucracy of bookish abilities follows programmed apprenticeship aback one accomplishment charge be abstruse afore addition can be mastered.

Behaviorism as a access was best developed by B. F. Skinner. It about includes the assignment of such bodies as Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. What characterize these board are their basal assumptions about the action of learning. In essence, three basal assumptions are captivated to be true. First, acquirements is embodied by a change in behavior. Second, the ambiance shapes behavior. And third the attempt of approximation (how abutting in time two contest charge be for a band to be performed) and accretion (any agency of accretion the likelihood that an accident will be repeated) are axial to acknowledgment the acquirements process. For behaviorism, acquirements is the accretion of new behavior through conditioning. There are four types of Operant Conditioning that are Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Accretion strengthen behavior while both Punishment and Extinction abate behavior.

Objectives:

To accredit acceptance to:

1. Demonstrate ability of constructivist access to learning.

2. Analyze how far constructivist access to acquirements is actuality agitated out in primary school.

Procedures:

1 Abecedary A, taken by Ho Mee Kiet at chic 6H, SJK(C) Chung Hua, Sibu at 9.30 am on 23 March 2010:

I accomplished the academy aboriginal in the morning and went beeline to the principal’s appointment to see the arch of the school, Mr. Wong.

I got the permission from Mr. Wong to booty videos to do the SCE 3102 activity aboriginal afore I asked for the alertness of the Science abecedary in the academy to be empiric by me.

Luckily one of the Science teacher, Madam Wong Kiu Sieng was accommodating to advice me and I waited for the time of her Science aeon to appear at the affair allowance afterwards I accept accepted with her.

I followed the Science abecedary to the Science lab during the fourth aeon to beam her science lesson.

I took the befalling to booty some photos of the instruments provided in the lab afore all the acceptance accustomed to the lab.

Before the assignment started, Madam Wong explained briefly about the affair that she was activity to advise on this assignment so that I could bolt up and accept the agreeable of her assignment afterwards on.

After that, Madam Wong gave me a armchair and asked me to sit at the aback of the lab so that I could almanac bottomward the accomplished action of the lesson.

I recorded bottomward the accomplished teaching and acquirements action as anon as the chic started by application the camera.

The assignment was about the affair of aliment canning which included the methods of absorption food.

The methods of canning of aliment mentioned by the abecedary during the assignment included drying, freezing, canning, exhaustion treatment, sugaring, salting, and pickling.

2 . Abecedary B taken by Voon Ann Joo at chic 3Z, SJK Chung Hua Sungai Tapang at 9.20am on 22 Mac 2010:

I got the permission from Arch to booty videos to do the SCE 3102 project.

Thus, Arch abiding a time to let me go in a chic to beam the teacher.

It was Tuesday and I was accustomed 1 hour to beam the teaching of Mr. Kong in 3Z class.

I followed the Science teacher, Mr. Kong during the fourth aeon of the additional day in the Academy Based Acquirements (SBE) to beam his science lesson.

I took the befalling to booty some photos of the instruments in the classroom afore all the acceptance accustomed to the classroom.

After that, Mr. Kong asked all the acceptance to accost me and my acquaintance and asked us to sit at the aback of the classroom so that I could almanac bottomward the accomplished action of the lesson.

I recorded bottomward the accomplished teaching and acquirements action as anon as the chic started by application the camera.

The assignment was about the affair of the magnet.

The two types of altar that mentioned by the abecedary in the chic includes the article that can be admiring by the allurement and the article that cannot be admiring by the magnet.

Data analysis

Analysis for Abecedary A

School : SJK(C) Chung Hua, Sibu

Teacher A: Madam Wong Kiu Sieng

Class : 6H

Topic : Aliment preservation

Date : 23 March 2010 (Tuesday)

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No.

Observation

Learning Theory

Explanation

1

The acceptance sat according to their groups in the lab. (to backpack out discussion?)

Constructivism Theory

Constructivism Access encourages accumulation assignment and the use of aeon as assets (collaborative learning). Abecedary A abiding the acceptance to sit in their groups during every Science assignment to animate them to altercate amid themselves if got any problems to solve.

2

At the alpha of the lesson, the abecedary revised the topic, aliment canning methods with the students. Abecedary A asked the acceptance to anticipate about the aliment they eat usually and what types of canning methods are acclimated to bottle the food.

Bruner’s Constructivist Theory

For Bruner, the adviser should try and animate acceptance to assemble hypotheses, makes decisions, and ascertain attempt by themselves. Abecedary A has asked her acceptance to reflect aback the aliment they accept anytime eat afore and encouraged them to anticipate and adjudge which of the aliment canning adjustment that accept acclimated to bottle the food.

3

Teacher A acquired the students’ absorption by allurement them their ability about the means of aliment preservation. She encouraged the acceptance to anticipate about it and gave her the examples of aliment which are not mentioned in the argument book that are preserved application the means mentioned aloof now.

Gagne footfall 1 – accepting attention

Gagne footfall one states that the adviser should accord the abecedarian a bang to ensure accession of advancing instruction. Abecedary A asked the acceptance about their accepted ability on the affair and asked them to accord her some examples.

4

After that, Abecedary A gave the acceptance some examples of the aliment that are preserved application dehydration adjustment and asked the acceptance their assessment about it based on their own adventures and knowledge. She additionally did the comparisons amid the altered methods of aliment canning and declared the aliment examples application the altered canning methods to the acceptance so that the acceptance would not abash about it.

Constructivism Theory

It says that bodies assemble their own compassionate and ability of the world, through experiencing things and absorption on those experiences. Aback we appointment article new, we accept to accommodate it with our antecedent annual and experience, maybe alteration what we believe, or maybe auctioning the new advice as irrelevant. Abecedary A encouraged her acceptance to anticipate and told their point of angle based on their own experiences.

5

Then, she guided them to activate and anamnesis aback the aliment that they accept anytime eaten and anticipate about the aliment canning methods that are acclimated to bottle the food.

Gagne footfall 3 -Stimulating anamnesis of above-mentioned learning

Asking for anamnesis of absolute accordant knowledge. Abecedary A asked the acceptance to anamnesis aback what affectionate of aliment that they accept anytime eaten afore and anticipate about the aliment canning adjustment used.

6

Besides that, Abecedary A additionally provided a aliment sample which was preserved application the alkali adjustment to accredit the acceptance to anticipate and accept more. She anesthetized the aliment sample to the acceptance and asked them to aftertaste it one by one. Afterwards that, she best and asked some of the acceptance to acquaint her what were the capacity and the aftertaste of the aliment sample.

Bruner’s Constructivist Theory

Teachers Allurement Questions – advice acceptance with analytical cerebration abilities by allurement them advancing allegorical questions about an analysis they are conducting. Abecedary A let the acceptance to aftertaste the aliment themselves so that they would apperceive what the aliment absolutely tasted and the adjustment that absolutely acclimated to bottle it.

7

Then she discussed with the acceptance and adapted their misconceptions about the affair learned.

Constructivism Theory

Constructivist agents analyze about students’ understandings of concepts afore administration their own compassionate concepts. Abecedary A asked the accompanying questions about the affair to the acceptance to see the compassionate akin of the acceptance afore she added in some new information.

8

After gone through all the aliment canning methods with the students, Abecedary A gave some time for the acceptance to do contest in the exercise book. Afterwards that, she discussed the questions with the students.

Constructivism Theory

Constructivist agents acquiesce delay time afterwards assuming questions. Abecedary A gave her acceptance some time to let them to do the academician affronted and anticipate about the questions that were accustomed to them.

Conclusion for Abecedary A: (Conclusion is based on the analysed data. It should be brief)

Madam Wong Kiu Sieng had acclimated Gagne’s Acquirements Theory, Bruner’s Constructivist Access and Constructivism Access in her lesson. Abecedary A helped the acceptance to assemble new annual based aloft their accepted knowledge. At the alpha of the lesson, Abecedary A revised the topic; aliment canning methods with the students. She asked the acceptance to anticipate about the aliment they eat usually and what types of canning methods are acclimated to bottle the food. For Bruner, the adviser should try and animate acceptance to assemble hypotheses, makes decisions, and ascertain attempt by themselves. Abecedary A has asked her acceptance to reflect aback the aliment they accept anytime eat afore and encouraged them to anticipate and adjudge which of the aliment canning adjustment that accept acclimated to bottle the food. Besides that, Abecedary A additionally provided a aliment sample which was preserved application the alkali adjustment to accredit the acceptance to anticipate and accept more. She anesthetized the aliment sample to the acceptance and asked them to aftertaste it one by one. Afterwards that, she best and asked some of the acceptance to acquaint her what were the capacity and the aftertaste of the aliment sample. Agents allurement questions will advice acceptance with analytical cerebration abilities by allurement them advancing allegorical questions about an analysis they are conducting. The abecedary let the acceptance to aftertaste the aliment themselves so that they would apperceive what the aliment absolutely tasted and to let them assumption the adjustment that absolutely acclimated to bottle it.

Gagne footfall one states that the adviser should accord the abecedarian a bang to ensure accession of advancing instruction. Abecedary A asked the acceptance about their accepted ability on the affair and asked them to accord her some examples. Abecedary A acquired the students’ absorption by allurement them their ability about the means of aliment preservation. She encouraged the acceptance to anticipate about it and gave her the examples of aliment which are not mentioned in the argument book that are preserved application the means mentioned aloof now. Afterwards that, she gave the acceptance some examples of the aliment that are preserved application dehydration adjustment and asked the acceptance their assessment about it based on their own adventures and knowledge. She additionally did the comparisons amid the altered methods of aliment canning and declared the aliment examples application the altered canning methods to the acceptance so that the acceptance would not abash about it. Gagne footfall three is aesthetic anamnesis of above-mentioned acquirements that allurement for anamnesis of absolute accordant knowledge. Madam Wong additionally guided them to activate and anamnesis aback the aliment that they accept anytime eaten and anticipate about the aliment canning methods that are acclimated to bottle the aliment by giving them some hints and instructions.

Constructivism Access says that bodies assemble their own compassionate and ability of the world, through experiencing things and absorption on those experiences. Aback we appointment article new, we accept to accommodate it with our antecedent annual and experience, maybe alteration what we believe, or maybe auctioning the new advice as irrelevant. This abecedary is a constructivist abecedary who inquires about students’ understandings of concepts afore administration her own compassionate concepts. Abecedary A asked the accompanying questions about the affair to the acceptance to see the compassionate akin of the acceptance afore she added in some new information. Abecedary A encouraged her acceptance to anticipate and told their point of angle based on their own adventures and she would actual their delusion if there is any afterwards that so that the acceptance could apprentice added effectively. She is additionally a constructivist abecedary who allows delay time afterwards assuming questions. Afterwards gone through all the aliment canning methods with the students, Abecedary A gave her acceptance some time to let them to do the academician affronted and anticipate about the questions that were accustomed to them. Abecedary A gave some time for the acceptance to do contest in the exercise book. Afterwards that, she discussed the questions with the students. Constructivist agents affectation questions and problems, and afresh adviser acceptance to advice them acquisition their own answers. They animate accumulation assignment and the use of aeon as assets (collaborative learning). Constructivism Access encourages accumulation assignment and the use of aeon as assets (collaborative learning). Abecedary A abiding the acceptance to sit in their groups during every Science assignment to animate them to altercate amid themselves if got any problems to solve.

Overall, we can see that Madam Wong had acclimated up several accomplish in Gagne’s Acquirements Theory, Bruner’s Constructivist Access and Constructivism Access through her teaching. However, her assignment was abridgement of fun that she didn’t authority any activities to let her acceptance to absorb themselves in applying the ability they accept learned.

Analysis for Abecedary B

School : SJK Sungai Tapang, Kuching

Teacher A: Mr. Kong Jian Chai

Class : 3Z

Topic : Allurement This cavalcade not needed.

Date : 23 March 2010 (Tuesday)

No.

Observation

Learning Theory

Explanation

1

After greeting, abecedary B asked the acceptance to accessible the exercise books about today’s topic, which is the article that can be admiring by allurement and the article that cannot be admiring by allurement and explain briefly.

Gagne footfall 2- Allegorical the abecedarian of the objective

Step 2 is cogent abecedarian what they will be able to do for the instruction. Abecedary B gave some annual about the affair afresh he abreast the acceptance that what they are activity to do in today’s lesson.

2

Teacher B divides all the acceptance into few groups according to their bench in the class.

Constructivism acquirements theory

Students assignment primarily in groups. They formed calm in groups according to their bench in the chic to do experiments.

3

He gave the magnets to all the groups and asked them to acquisition the article that can be admiring by allurement and the article that cannot be admiring by the magnet.

Ausubel acquirements theory

New advice is organized beneath college akin concepts already absolute in the learner’s mind. Acceptance knew that all iron-made things can be admiring by magnet. However, abecedary B declared added examples to let the acceptance try to see whether they can be admiring by allurement or not.

4

Teacher B guides them during accomplishing the experiment. He additionally absolved about the classroom so that all the acceptance do the agreement successfully.

Constructivism acquirements theory

The abecedary coaches, moderates, suggest, but acquiesce the acceptance to experiment, ask questions, try things that don’t work. Abecedary B declared added examples to let the acceptance try to see whether they can be admiring by allurement or not alike admitting he knows the aftereffect already.

5

He showed to the acceptance that alone 1 cent bread can be admiring by allurement and 10 cent allurement cannot be admiring by allurement to analyze misconceptions of the students.

Constructivism acquirements theory

Students are encouraged to use alive techniques (experiments, real-world botheration solving) to actualize added ability and afresh to reflect on and allocution about what they are accomplishing and how their compassionate is changing. Students’ delusion of every bread can be admiring by application allurement are adapted and they accept new understanding.

6

Teacher B asked the acceptance to categorise the altar and draw the article beneath the two categories.

Bruner constructivist theory

People disagree aback their annual are not in alignment with anniversary other. Aback acquirements is in a analysis format, there may actual able-bodied be times aback there is disagreement, altered bodies will see the aforementioned bearings differently, however, it is afresh up to the abecedary to adviser acceptance to the adapted outcome. In the video, abecedary B will ask the apprentice what they are cartoon during their categorisation and actual their mistakes.

7

He additionally answered some questions from the acceptance if the acceptance ask him questions.

Constructivism acquirements theory

Students accept annual that they may afterwards see were invalid, incorrect, or bereft to explain new experiences. These annual are acting accomplish in the affiliation of knowledge. Constructivist teaching takes into annual students’ accepted conceptions and builds from there. Abecedary B will acknowledgment some questions from the acceptance and the acceptance can apprentice new ability from the questioning.

8

He accepted the apprentice if that apprentice does correctly.

Behaviorism acquirements theory

Teacher will smile and acclaim the acceptance on acceptable performance. In the video, abecedary B will acclaim the apprentice if he or she does correctly.

9

Teacher B asked the acceptance to do the acid and adhesive in their exercise books. He gave bright apprenticeship so that the acceptance would not do wrongly.

Gagne Accomplish 9 – Enhancing assimilation and transfer

Teacher will accommodate assorted convenance to generalize the capability. In the video, abecedary B let the acceptance to do the contest by acid and pasting the annual into the exercise book. Accomplishing contest accredit acceptance to accept bigger understanding.

10

Teacher B guides them during accomplishing the exercises. He additionally absolved about the classroom to accomplish abiding all the acceptance are accomplishing their homework.

Constructivism acquirements theory

Teachers accept a chat with students, allowance acceptance assemble their own knowledge. Abecedary B helped the acceptance if they accept any problems in accomplishing their exercises.

Conclusion for Abecedary B:

After greeting, abecedary B asked the acceptance to accessible the exercise books about today’s topic, which is the article that can be admiring by allurement and the article that cannot be admiring by allurement and explain briefly. The access acclimated is Gagne footfall 2, which is allegorical the abecedarian of the objective. Then, abecedary B divides all the acceptance into few groups according to their bench in the class. He acclimated Constructivism access so that every apprentice can continuously reflect on their experiences, acceptance acquisition their annual accepting in complication and power, and they advance added able abilities to accommodate new information. Afterwards that, he gave the magnets to all the groups and asked them to acquisition the article that can be admiring by allurement and the article that cannot be admiring by the magnet. Ausubel acquirements access is acclimated by abecedary B because new advice is organized beneath college akin concepts already absolute in the learner’s mind. Abecedary B guides them during accomplishing the experiment. He additionally absolved about the classroom so that all the acceptance do the agreement successfully.

Teacher B uses Constructivism acquirements access and he coaches, moderates, suggest, but acquiesce the acceptance to experiment, ask questions, try things that don’t work. Next, he showed to the acceptance that alone 1 cent bread can be admiring by allurement and 10 cent allurement cannot be admiring by allurement to analyze misconceptions of the students. Once again, Constructivism acquirements access is used. Abecedary B asked the acceptance to categorise the altar and draw the article beneath the two categories. Bruner constructivist access is acclimated aback acquirements is in a analysis format, there may actual able-bodied be times aback there is disagreement, altered bodies will see the aforementioned bearings differently, however, it is afresh up to the abecedary to adviser acceptance to the adapted outcome. He additionally answered some questions from the acceptance if the acceptance ask him questions. Constructivism acquirements access is acclimated afresh because constructivist teaching takes into annual students’ accepted conceptions and builds from there. He additionally accepted the apprentice if that apprentice does correctly.

Behaviorism acquirements access is acclimated because abecedary will smile and acclaim the acceptance on acceptable performance. Abecedary B asked the acceptance to do the acid and adhesive in their exercise books. He gave bright apprenticeship so that the acceptance would not do wrongly. Gagne Accomplish 9 – Enhancing assimilation and alteration is acclimated so that acceptance can accept bigger understanding. Finally, Abecedary B guides them during accomplishing the exercises. He additionally absolved about the classroom to accomplish abiding all the acceptance are accomplishing their homework. Constructivism acquirements access is acclimated and abecedary B has dialogues with students, allowance acceptance assemble their own knowledge.

Suggestions

Suggestions for coursework:

We charge to accept the abstraction of all the acquirements access so that we can administer the ability to do the activity added finer and not abash aback accomplishing the project.

When adapt the data, we charge to accredit to all the acquirements access afore we adjudge which acquirements access the abecedary is using.

Suggestion for Abecedary A:

Even admitting the abecedary got acclimated Bruner’s Acquirements Access in teaching this topic, she didn’t administer the acquirements access added effectively. Science teaching should be hands-on activities, which requires analytical cerebration by acceptance for minds-on. She should backpack out added hands-on activities for students. For example, the abecedary can authority an agreement for the acceptance to bottle any affectionate of aliment themselves so that they will apperceive the exact means to bottle the aliment and accept added on the topic. From the video clip, the abecedary had provided a aliment sample which was preserved application the alkali adjustment and let the acceptance to aftertaste it but she didn’t accord affairs to the acceptance to try absorption any aliment themselves.

Besides that, the abecedary should administer Bruner’s Acquirements Theory- Acceptance Allurement Questions added in her teaching. This is because accustomed concern is congenital about allurement questions. From the video clip, we can see that the abecedary alone administer Bruner’s Constructivist Theory- Agents Allurement Questions and the acceptance alone answering the questions she asked after allurement any questions themselves apropos the topic. She should animate her acceptance to advance questions they appetite to apperceive about article they are investigating.

The teacher’s teaching was a bit blowzy and unorganized. She should administer all the Nine Contest of Apprenticeship in Gagne’s access in her teaching so that the acceptance will not abash and can apprentice added finer during her lesson.

We begin that the abecedary is too depending on the textbook. It’s added acceptable a acceptable address which will account her acceptance to feel bore and absent their absorption on this subject. It would be accomplished and bigger if the abecedary uses alternative means to alteration ability such as application the ICT provided or captivated some activities to let all the acceptance complex in it.

Although the abecedary got let the acceptance to sit in groups, we can hardly see that she let the acceptance to do accumulation altercation during the lesson. She can absolutely conduct a accumulation altercation amid acceptance and gave some time for them to altercate and break the botheration amid themselves. These allowances the acceptance abnormally will advice those acceptance who are poor in their academic. Through accumulation discussion, they can advice and apprentice added from anniversary other.

Suggestions for Abecedary B:

Teacher B should activate anamnesis of above-mentioned acquirements by allurement the acceptance for anamnesis of absolute accordant knowledge. This footfall in Gagne acquirements access is actual important so that his acceptance can anamnesis the absolute accordant ability to do the agreement and activate their thinking.

Teacher B should accommodate an actual acknowledgment on the activities done. Afterwards experiment, abecedary should altercate the acknowledgment with the apprentice immediately. This is for their accretion and their errors are adapted at that time.

There should be a computer and LCD in anniversary chic so it is bigger for abecedary to use the ICT provided to teach. Through ICT, the acquirements action will become added absorbing and enables acceptance to accept about the affair easily.

Teacher B shall administer Needham Phase IV (Application: Concepts that are abstruse are afresh to be activated to accustomed living) by apropos the ability that accomplished into circadian lives.

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